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placenta praevia

A condition in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus. –2003
NCI

Abnormal placentation in which the PLACENTA implants in the lower segment of the UTERUS (the zone of dilation) and may cover part or all of the opening of the CERVIX. It is often associated with serious antepartum bleeding and PREMATURE LABOR.
MSH

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neuropeptid Y

A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
MSH

36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons; has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity.
CSP

Encoded by single copy human NPY Gene (NPY Family), 97-aa 11-kDa (precursor) secreted Neuropeptide Y is a 36-aa peptide neuromodulator with sequence homology to peptide YY and PNP. One of the most abundant widespread peptides in the nervous system and found in some adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, NPY is one of the most highly conserved peptides known; only 3 amino acid differences exist between human and shark. Implicated in control of feeding, energy balance, and secretion of GNRH, NPY may also regulate angiogenesis. NPY regulates proliferation of multipotent postnatal neuronal precursor or basal cells by PKC-dependent rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases (via NPY Y1 receptor subtype). (NCI)
NCI

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Svazijsko

A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880`s, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
MSH

A country in Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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kokain

An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
MSH

alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca; has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse; acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake; it is also a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose.
CSP

Cocaine is a powerful drug that stimulates the brain. People who use it can form a strong addiction. They may have to use more and more of the drug to get high. It`s sold on the street as a fine, white powder. There are two forms of cocaine: hydrochloride salt and freebase. The salt dissolves in water. People can take it in a vein or in the nose. The freebase form can be smoked. Crack is the street name of a smokable form of cocaine.

No matter how cocaine is taken, it is dangerous. Some of the most common serious problems include

  • Heart problems, including heart attacks
  • Respiratory effects, including respiratory failure
  • Nervous system problems, including strokes
  • Digestive problems

Any of these can be fatal. Using cocaine with alcohol is a common cause of drug-related death.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


MEDLINEPLUS

A tropane alkaloid with central nervous systems (CNS) stimulating and local anesthetic activity. Cocaine binds to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and inhibits the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. This leads to an accumulation of the respective neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and may result in increased postsynaptic receptor activation. The mechanism of action through which cocaine exerts its local anesthetic effects is by binding to and blocking the voltage-gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane. By stabilizing neuronal membranes, cocaine inhibits the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses and produces a reversible loss of sensation.
NCI

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hypertelorismus

Abnormal increase in the interorbital distance due to overdevelopment of the lesser wings of the sphenoid.
MSH

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plazma – náhražky

Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
MSH

substance that can carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the tissues when introduced into the blood stream; used to replace hemoglobin in severe hemorrhage and also to perfuse isolated organs; includes perfluorocarbon emulsions and various hemoglobin solutions; also any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations which do not enhance the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but replace volume.
CSP

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New Caledonia

A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
MSH

A country in the Pacific, comprised of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Pacific, comprised of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ZORABIOA (SINKOPEA),KONORTE GALTZEA

A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
MSH

fainting due to a sudden fall of blood pressure below the level required to maintain oxygenation of brain tissue.
CSP

Extremely weak; threatened with syncope.
NCI

If you`ve ever fainted, you are not alone – at least one third of people faint sometime in their lives. Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness. You lose muscle control at the same time, and may fall down. Most people recover quickly and completely.

Fainting usually happens when your blood pressure drops suddenly, causing a decrease in blood flow to your brain. This is more common in older people. Some causes of fainting include

  • Heat or dehydration
  • Emotional distress
  • Standing up too quickly
  • Certain medicines
  • Drop in blood sugar
  • Heart problems

Fainting is usually nothing to worry about, but it can sometimes be a sign of a serious problem. If you faint, it`s important to see your health care provider and find out why it happened.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain.
NCI

Extremely weak; threatened with syncope.
NCI

A spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain.
NCI

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koenzymy

Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
MSH

synthetic or natural chemical compounds which resemble naturally occurring coenzymes in structure and/or function.
CSP

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HIPOGLIZEMIA

A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
MSH

syndrome of abnormally low blood glucose level; clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies; severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the central nervous system resulting in hunger, sweating, paresthesia, impaired mental function, seizures, coma, and even death.
CSP

Abnormally low blood sugar.
NCI

Did you know you have sugar in your blood? Your body needs glucose, a form of sugar, to have enough energy. After you eat, your blood absorbs glucose. If you eat more sugar than your body needs, your muscles and liver store the extra. When your blood sugar begins to fall, a hormone tells your liver to release glucose. In most people, this raises blood sugar. If it doesn`t, you have hypoglycemia, and your blood sugar can be dangerously low. Signs include

  • Hunger
  • Shakiness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Feeling anxious or weak

Hypoglycemia is usually a side effect of diabetes medicines. Eating or drinking something with carbohydrates can help. If it happens often, your health care provider may need to change your treatment plan.

You can also have low blood sugar without having diabetes. In that case, your health care provider will try to find the cause using laboratory tests to measure blood glucose, insulin and other chemicals that play a part in the body`s use of energy.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate a low concentration of glucose in the blood.
NCI

Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood.
NCI

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glykoproteiny membrány trombocytů

Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
MSH

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kyselina niflumová

An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
MSH

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tachykardie

Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
MSH

excessive rapidity in the action of the heart.
CSP

Rapid beating of the heart, usually defined as greater than 100 beats per minute.
NCI

Tachycardia; an abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually applied to a heart rate above 100 per minute.
NCI

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kolagen

A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
MSH

principle protein of connective tissue; unusual absence of sulfur aminoacids; unique presence of hydroxyproline is believed to permit a triple helical fibrous structure.
CSP

A fibrous protein found in cartilage and other connective tissue.
NCI

A family of large fibrous proteins that are the main components of connective tissue and are responsible for maintaining tissue structure.
NCI

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hypotermie indukovaná

Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
MSH

abnormally low body temperature intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means.
CSP

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pneumokonióza

A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
MSH

any of a group of lung diseases resulting from inhalation of particles of industrial substances.
CSP

An occupational lung disorder caused by inhalation of dust particles. It is characterized by bilateral interstitial lung infiltrates. Representative examples include asbestosis, silicosis, anthracosis, and talc pneumoconiosis.
NCI

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dusitany

Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

the anion NO2-.
CSP

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tarzální kosti

The seven bones which form the tarsus – namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
MSH

Any one of the seven bones forming the instep of the foot. (NCI)
NCI

The seven bones which form the tarsus; namely the calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and first, second and third cuneiforms. The tarsus is a skeletal part of the foot.
NCI

Any one of the seven bones forming the instep of the foot.
NCI

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jednotky formování kolonií – testy

A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
MSH

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Idaho

A state in the northern Rocky Mountains of western United States. Its capital is Boise.
NCI

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Poisoning aspects

Used with drugs, chemicals, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure.
MSH

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nitrosomočovinové sloučeniny

An anticancer drug that can cross the blood-brain barrier. Carmustine and lomustine are nitrosoureas.
NCI

Any of a class of alkylating agents that contain both a nitroso group and a urea. They are lipophilic and can cross the blood-brain barrier.
NCI

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technologie v biomedicíně – hodnocení

Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.
MSH

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komunikace

The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
MSH

exchange or transmission of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior.
CSP

The exchange of information between objects, people, or groups.
NCI

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obraz – interpretace počítačová

Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
MSH

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polybrombifenylové sloučeniny

Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
MSH

A mixture of synthetic solids, containing three or more bromine atoms, that is virtually insoluble in water but is soluble in fat and various organic solvents. There are 209 different molecular combinations, or congeners, that are possible for polybrominated biphenyls. These mixtures are no longer used or produced in commercial quantities in the United States. Residues remaining in and around plants that formerly manufactured, processed or produced products using polybrominated biphenyls are the current sources for human exposure. The primary routes of potential human exposure to polybrominated biphenyls are ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. A commercial mixture of these compounds is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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kyselina nordihydroguaiaretová

A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
MSH

A naturally occurring antioxidant dicatechol originally derived from the creosote bush Larrea divaricatta with antipromoter, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) directly inhibits activation of two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and the c-erbB2/HER2/neu receptor, resulting in decreased proliferation of susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent may induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations as a result of disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in association with the activation of stress activated protein kinases (SAPKs). In addition, NDGA inhibits arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX), resulting in diminished synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrines; it may prevent leukocyte infiltration into tissues and the release of reactive oxygen species and, at higher concentrations, may also inhibit cyclooxygenase. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=479648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=479648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C701″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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temporomandibulární kloub

An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
MSH

temporomandibular articulation: a bicondylar joint formed by the head of the mandible and the mandibular fossa, and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
CSP

The joint between the head of the lower mandible and the temporal bone. (NCI)
NCI

The joint between the head of the lower mandible and the temporal bone.
NCI

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komplement C1s

A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).
MSH

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imunoanalýza

A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
MSH

Immunoassay


HL7V3.0

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