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hemoglobinopatie

A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
MSH

group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
CSP

An inherited disorder characterized by structural alterations of a globin chain within the hemoglobin molecule.
NCI

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Afrika severní

The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
MSH

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dopamin

One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
MSH

one of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain; it is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine; dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement; dopamine receptors mediate its action.
CSP

A monoamine compound with positive inotropic activity. Dopamine is a naturally occurring catecholamine formed by decarboxylation of dehydroxyphenylalanine and a precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine binds to alpha-1 and beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Mediated through myocardial beta-1 adrenergic receptors, dopamine increase heart rate and force, thereby increasing cardiac output. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation on vascular smooth muscle, leads to vasoconstriction and results in an increase in systemic vascular resistance. Stimulation of dopaminergic receptors in renal vasculature, leads to renal blood vessel dilation, and an increase in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, sodium excretion, and urine output.
NCI

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morálka – vývoj

The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.
MSH

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pyrimidiny

A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
MSH

6-membered aromatic ring structure with 2 meta nitrogen heteroatoms.
CSP

One of two classes of heterocyclic nitrogenous bases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA: in DNA the pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine, in RNA uracil replaces thymine.
NCI

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bis(chlormethyl)ether

A substance that is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract and may be carcinogenic.
MSH

A colorless, flammable, carcinogenic liquid with an extremely suffocating odor. Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether is used in industry as an alkylating agent, a chemical intermediate, a monitoring indicator for the presence of chloromethyl ether, and as a laboratory reagent. This substance is irritating to eyes and mucous membranes and emits toxic vapors of hydrochloric acid and other chlorinated compounds when heated to decomposition. Exposure to Bis(Chloromethyl) ether is associated with higher risk of developing lung cancer, mainly small-cell type, and the risk increases with increasing duration and cumulative exposure. (NCI05)
NCI

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hemostáza

The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
MSH

process of arresting blood flow or bleeding, either physiologically by vasoconstriction and coagulation or by mechanical or surgical means.
CSP

The arrest of bleeding, either by the natural processes of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means.
NCI

The stopping of bleeding (loss of body fluid) or the arrest of the circulation to an organ or part. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The arrest of bleeding, either by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means.
NCI

body function that stops bleeding by coagulating blood and constricting blood vessel
CHV

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agranulocytóza

A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
MSH

decrease in the number of granulocytes (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils).
CSP

A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell).
NCI

A decrease in the number of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in the peripheral blood. — 2004
NCI

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intravenous administration

injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
CSP

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kinetózy

Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
MSH

Motion sickness is a common problem in people traveling by car, train, airplanes and especially boats. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling and cold sweats. It can then lead to dizziness and nausea and vomiting.

Your brain senses movement by getting signals from your inner ears, eyes, muscles and joints. When it gets signals that do not match, you can get motion sickness. For example, down below on a boat, your inner ear senses motion, but your eyes cannot tell you are moving.

Where you sit can make a difference. The front seat of a car, forward cars of a train, upper deck on a boat or wing seats in a plane may give you a smoother ride. Looking out into the distance – instead of trying to read or look at something in the vehicle – can also help.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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Q-horečka

An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
MSH

acute infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii; characterized by a sudden onset of fever,headache, malaise, and weakness; in humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals.
CSP

A bacterial infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. It is transmitted to humans by the inhalation of infected air particles or contact with fluids and feces of infected animals. Signs and symptoms include the abrupt onset of fever, headache, myalgias, and weakness.
NCI

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blastomykóza

A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.
MSH

infection caused by fungi of the genus Blastomyces.
CSP

A fungal infection caused by inhalation of spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents with flu-like symptoms including fever, chills, cough, pleuritic chest pain and myalgias. It may lead to a chronic granulomatous pulmonary infection and disseminate to other anatomic sites including skin, nervous system and bones.
NCI

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virus hepatitidy kachen

Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
MSH

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alanintransaminasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
MSH

Expressed in liver, kidney, heart, fat, and skeletal muscle by glucocorticoid-induced human GPT Gene (Alanine Aminotransferase Family), 495-aa 54-kDa Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase is a homodimeric cytoplasmic pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme involved in cellular nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and liver gluconeogenesis. GPT mediates conversion of major intermediate metabolites, catalyzing reversible transamination between alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. (NCI)
NCI

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léky – rezistence mikrobiální

The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
MSH

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melanocyty stimulující hormony

peptide hormones secreted by the intermediate lobe of the pituitary that stimulate melanin release and dispersal; also found in the brain where they are presumed to play a signaling role.
CSP

Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS.
MSH

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chinony

Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
MSH

benzene ring with 2 para keto groups.
CSP

A class of organic compounds with the base structure of quinone, an aromatic benzene molecule containing a double ketone functional group.
NCI

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selfmonitoring glykémie

Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
MSH

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HERNIA INGINALA

An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach`s triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
MSH

The protrusion of a sac-like structure containing fibroadipose tissue through an abnormal opening in the inguinal region.
NCI

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aldehyddehydrogenasa

An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
MSH

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DUODENO ULTZERA

A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
MSH

peptic ulcer located in the duodenum, the shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a circumscribed, inflammatory and necrotic erosive lesion on the mucosal surface of the duodenal wall.
NCI

An ulcer in the duodenal wall.
NCI

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mumie

Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
MSH

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radikální krční disekce

A surgical procedure in which all the ipsilateral cervical lymph node groups of the neck, internal jugular vein, sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal accessory nerve, and submandibular gland are removed.
NCI

A surgical operation for head and neck malignancies, most of which are squamous cell carcinomas. The neck is opened laterally, the majority of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is removed, as are the regional cervical lymph nodes, the jugular vein, the spinal accessory nerve, the submaxillary gland and most of the parotid gland. There are several modifications. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992, p605)
MSH

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hematotestikulární bariéra

A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
MSH

specialized barrier in the testis between the interstitial blood compartment and the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules; formed by layers of cells from the vascular endothelium of the capillaries to the seminiferous epithelium; tight junctions form between adjacent sertoli cells as well as between the endothelial cells.
CSP

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heterozygot

An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
MSH

having different alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments.
CSP

Having two different allelic forms of a gene, one inherited from each parent, on each of the two homologous chromosomes.
NCI

Occurs when the two alleles at a particular gene locus are different. A heterozygous genotype may include one normal allele and one mutation, or two different mutations. The latter is called a compound heterozygote.
NCI

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alkylační látky

Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
MSH

chemical agent that can add alkyl groups (for example, ethyl or methyl groups) to another molecule; many mutagens act through alkylation.
CSP

A type of drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. It interferes with the cell`s DNA and inhibits cancer cell growth.
NCI

Agents that replace hydrogen atom(s) in biologically active molecules with alky radical(s), hindering proper function. Alkylating agents exhibit cytotoxic effects through the alkylation of DNA, resulting in strand cross-linking, ultimately inhibiting DNA replication and cell growth.
NCI

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dysostózy

Defective bone formation involving individual bones, singly or in combination.
MSH

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nervus musculocutaneus

A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.
MSH

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hygiena záření

Health concerns associated with the effects of radiation on the environment and on public and personal health.
MSH

the health effects of radiation; includes effects and hazards from environmental radiation fallout, occupational radiation, diagnostic or therapeutic radiological equipment or materials.
CSP

Studies focusing on the effects of radiation on the environment and on public and personal health.
NCI

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vazba zubní

An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
MSH

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