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sob

A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker`s Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
MSH

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chlormezanon

A non-benzodiazepine that is used in the management of anxiety. It has been suggested for use in the treatment of muscle spasm.
MSH

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Neurospora crassa

A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
MSH

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kongenitální analgezie

A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from nonnoxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
MSH

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hypertrofie

General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
MSH

general increase in bulk of a body part or organ due to an increase in cell volume; it is not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells.
CSP

Abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ.
NCI

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renin

A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
MSH

do not confuse with “rennin” which is another name for CHYMOSIN, EC 3.4.23.4.
CSP

an enzyme released by the kidneys that helps regulate blood pressure
CHV

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choana – atrézie

A congenital abnormality that is characterized by a blocked CHOANAE, the opening between the nose and the NASOPHARYNX. Blockage can be unilateral or bilateral; bony or membranous.
MSH

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niacin

A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
MSH

nicotinic acid (3-pyridinecarboxylic acid) and its derivatives; a water soluble B vitamin which is the precursor of NAD and NADP.
CSP

Water-soluble vitamin that is a cosubstrate or coenzyme with numerous dehydrogenases for the transfer of the hydride ion. (DRI)
NCI

A water-soluble vitamin belonging to the vitamin B family, which occurs in many animal and plant tissues, with antihyperlipidemic activity. Niacin is converted to its active form niacinamide, which is a component of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphate form, NADP. These coenzymes play an important role in tissue respiration and in glycogen, lipid, amino acid, protein, and purine metabolism. Although the exact mechanism of action by which niacin lowers cholesterol is not fully understood, it may act by inhibiting the synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), inhibiting the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, increasing lipoprotein lipase activity, and reducing the hepatic synthesis of VLDL-C and LDL-C. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38351&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38351&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C689″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A water-soluble vitamin belonging to the vitamin B family, which occurs in many animal and plant tissues, with antihyperlipidemic activity. Niacin is converted to its active form niacinamide, which is a component of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphate form, NADP. These coenzymes play an important role in tissue respiration and in glycogen, lipid, amino acid, protein, and purine metabolism. Although the exact mechanism of action by which niacin lowers cholesterol is not fully understood, it may act by inhibiting the synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), inhibiting the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, increasing lipoprotein lipase activity, and reducing the hepatic synthesis of VLDL-C and LDL-C.
NCI

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androgeny – antagonisté

Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
MSH

substance or state which suppresses, prevents, opposes or slows down the actions of the steroid hormone androgen.
CSP

A substance that prevents cells from making or using androgens (hormones that play a role in the formation of male sex characteristics). Antiandrogens may stop some cancer cells from growing. Some antiandrogens are used to treat prostate cancer, and others are being studied for this use. An antiandrogen is a type of hormone antagonist.
NCI

Substances that inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or biologic effects of androgens by either antagonizing the responsiveness of androgen sensitive tissues or competing with their binding sites.
NCI

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hypofyzektomie

Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

surgical removal or chemical destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland.
CSP

Surgical removal of part or all of the pituitary gland.
NCI

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charakteristiky bydlení

Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
MSH

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cholestáza intrahepatická

Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
MSH

Impairment of the bile flow caused by obstruction within the liver.
NCI

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nimustin

Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.
MSH

a kind of cancer treatment drug
CHV

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of brain cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called nitrosoureas.
NCI

A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Nimustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby causing DNA fragmentation, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38853&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38853&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C693″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Nimustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby causing DNA fragmentation, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death. (NCI05)
NCI

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hysterosalpingografie

Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
MSH

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dýchací systém – fyziologické jevy

physiological activity and functions of the respiratory system as a whole or of any of its parts, including any portion of the breathing process, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and internal (cellular) or external respiration (ventilation).
CSP

Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
MSH

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chondroitinasy a chondroitinlyasy

Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
MSH

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dusík – fixace

The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
MSH

ability of certain bacteria, fungi and blue-green algae to convert free atmospheric nitrogen to biologically usable forms such as ammonia, nitrates, or amino groups.
CSP

The process in which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes, such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide. [Wikipedia:Nitrogen_fixation]
GO

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imunoglobulin E

found on the surface membrane of basophils and mast cells in all individuals; may play a role in active immunity to helminthic parasites but in developed countries it is more commonly associated with immediate hypersensitivity diseases such as asthma and hay fever.
CSP

An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
MSH

a kind of antibody that plays an important role in allergy
CHV

An immunoglobulin isotype (subclass). This isotype has the unique ability to bind with high affinity to IgE receptors (FceRI) on mast cells and basophils and induce degranulation and cytokine production by these cells when they are crosslinked by antigen. In addition to a central role in atopy and allergic responses, it has been speculated that IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, by its release of mediators that increase vascular permeability, has an important role in the initiation of immune response in general.
NCI

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retinální pigmenty

Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
MSH

photopigments in retinal rods and cones that respond to certain colors of light and initiate the process of vision.
CSP

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chromany (dihydrobenzopyrany)

Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
MSH

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nokodazol

Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
MSH

A synthetic tubulin-binding agent with antineoplastic activity. Nocodazole binds to beta-tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. This prevents mitosis and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. Although nocodazole binding site overlaps with that of colchicine, the two agents are structurally quite different.
NCI

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ponoření

The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
MSH

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Rh izoimunizace

The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
MSH

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chromozómy – pruhování

Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
MSH

The treatment of chromosomes to reveal characteristic patterns of horizontal bands. The banding patterns lend each chromosome a distinctive appearance so the 22 pairs of human non-sex chromosomes and the X and Y chromosomes can be identified and distinguished without ambiguity. Banding also permits the recognition of chromosome deletions (lost segments), chromosome duplications (surplus segments) and other types of structural rearrangements of chromosomes.
NCI

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norpregnadieny

Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
MSH

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imunoglobulinové idiotypy

Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
MSH

unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins such as another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein; the idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it; the idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the immunoglobulin variable region of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
CSP

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Rhizopus

A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.
MSH

A genus of filamentous fungi in the phylum Zygomycota.
NCI

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chromozómy lidské, pár 5

One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
MSH

The designation for each member of the fifth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 5 spans about 181 million base pairs and represents almost 6% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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imunoproteiny

Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
MSH

A complex consisting of an immune component and a protein. This complex molecule modulates a variety of activities that are regulated by the immune system.
NCI

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ribosamonofosfáty

Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
MSH

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