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karcinom dlaždicobuněčný

A carcinoma derived from stratified squamous epithelium. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. Squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts.
NCI

carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium.
CSP

a cancer arises from a cell called squamous epithelium. this is the most common type of skin cancer
CHV

A carcinoma arising from squamous epithelial cells. Morphologically, it is characterized by the proliferation of atypical, often pleomorphic squamous cells. Squamous cell carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Well differentiated carcinomas are usually associated with keratin production and the presence of intercellular bridges between adjacent cells. Representative examples are lung squamous cell carcinoma, skin squamous cell carcinoma, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
NCI

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Taenia solium

Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
MSH

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mitotan

A derivative of the insecticide DICHLORODIPHENYLDICHLOROETHANE that specifically inhibits cells of the adrenal cortex and their production of hormones. It is used to treat adrenocortical tumors and causes CNS damage, but no bone marrow depression.
MSH

An anticancer drug used in treating adrenocortical cancer and ACTH-producing pituitary tumors (Cushing`s disease).
NCI

A synthetic derivative of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) with anti-adrenocorticoid properties. Following its metabolism in the adrenal cortex to a reactive acyl chloride intermediate, mitotane covalently binds to adrenal proteins, specifically inhibiting adrenal cortical hormone production. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39506&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39506&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C664″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic derivative of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) with anti-adrenocorticoid properties. Following its metabolism in the adrenal cortex to a reactive acyl chloride intermediate, mitotane covalently binds to adrenal proteins, specifically inhibiting adrenal cortical hormone production. (NCI04)
NCI

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pneumonie stafylokoková

Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
MSH

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hematokolpos

A blood-filled VAGINA that is obstructed.
MSH

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kariogenní látky

Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.
MSH

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taurin

A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
MSH

oxidized sulfur-containing amine occurring conjugated in the bile; may also be a central nervous system neurotransmitter or neuromodulator.
CSP

Non-protein amino acid with sulfonic acid group.
NCI

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molekulární biologie

A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
MSH

study of biological processes at the molecular level, including membrane biochemistry, cytoskeleton biochemistry, and structural biology in addition to molecular genetics (see NTs and RTs).
CSP

The study of biology at a molecular level. It chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. The field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly genetics and biochemistry.
NCI

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politické systémy

The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
MSH

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hemokyanin

protein found in the blood of mollusks and arthropods which imparts its blue color.
CSP

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chrupavka – nemoci

Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of cartilage, the non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in a matrix of type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate.
CSP

Cartilage is the tough but flexible tissue that covers the ends of your bones at a joint. It also gives shape and support to other parts of your body, such as your ears, nose and windpipe. Healthy cartilage helps you move by allowing your bones to glide over each other. It also protects bones by preventing them from rubbing against each other.

Injured, inflamed or damaged cartilage can cause symptoms such as pain and limited movement. It can also lead to joint damage and deformity. Causes of cartilage problems include

  • Tears and injuries, such as sports injuries
  • Genetic factors
  • Other disorders, such as some types of arthritis

Osteoarthritis results from breakdown of cartilage.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


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telemetrie

Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

measurements made at a distance from the subject which are transmitted by radio signals.
CSP

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monoacylglycerollipasy

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
MSH

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polydeoxyribonukleotidy

A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
MSH

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hemoperfúze

Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).
MSH

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catgut

Sterile collagen strands obtained from healthy mammals. They are used as absorbable surgical ligatures and are frequently impregnated with chromium or silver for increased strength. They tend to cause tissue reaction.
MSH

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pevnost v tahu

The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
MSH

the tendency of materials to stretch rather than break when pulled apart; especially applicable to wire, cord, and the like, but may apply to biological tissues as well.
CSP

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morfin

The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
MSH

principal and most active narcotic alkaloid of opium, having powerful analgesic action and some central stimulant action; abuse leads to dependence.
CSP

An opiate alkaloid isolated from the plant Papaver somniferum and produced synthetically. Morphine binds to and activates specific opiate receptors (delta, mu and kappa), each of which are involved in controlling different brain functions. In the central nervous and gastrointestinal systems, this agent exhibits widespread effects including analgesia, anxiolysis, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, and gastrointestinal system smooth muscle contraction. (NCI04)
NCI

a kind of narcotic pain relieving drug
CHV

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Polyomavirus

normally present in hosts as latent infections, potentially oncogenic; host DNA may become enclosed in virus capsids creating a `pseudovirus`; isolated from man, mouse, rabbit, hamster and several species of monkey.
CSP

A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
MSH

A genus of double-stranded DNA viruses. The viral particles are not enveloped and are icosahedral in structure.
NCI

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heparin nízkomolekulární

Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
MSH

Substances comprised of fragmented heparin molecules derived from unfractionated heparin that bind to antithrombin III with a molecular weight ranging from 1000 to 10,000 daltons, which causes changes in property from unfractionated heparin, including decreased protein binding, enhanced bioavailability, decreased platelet interaction, and decreased binding to thrombin.
NCI

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Cebidae

American monkeys with prehensile tail, widely separated nostrils, nonopposable thumb; many forms are omnivorous and social in families.
CSP

A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
MSH

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tetanový toxin

Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
MSH

potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin); causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal convulsions.
CSP

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fluoróza zubů

A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski`s Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
MSH

A condition that results from excessive fluorine intake during tooth development. Presentation of this disorder can range from white streaks to brown stains and cracks or pits in the tooth enamel.
NCI

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pons

The front part of hindbrain that lies between MEDULLA OBLONGATA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the CEREBELLUM. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. Pons serves as a relay station for important neural pathways between the cerebellum to the CEREBRUM.
MSH

part of the central nervous system lying between the medulla oblongata and the mesencephalon, ventral to the cerebellum, and consisting of a pars dorsalis and a pars ventralis.
CSP

Part of the central nervous system, located at the base of the brain, between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It is part of the brainstem.
NCI

Having to do with the pons (part of the central nervous system, located at the base of the brain, between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain).
NCI

Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the pontine tegmentum and basal part of pons. Examples: There is only one pons.
FMA

a part of the brain structure
CHV

The middle portion of the brainstem located between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata. The fourth ventricle lies dorsal to the pons which also contains the motor trigeminal nuclei and the abducens nuclei. The cerebellum contributes a large number of afferent fibers to the pons.
NCI

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hepatitida C

INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
MSH

viral disease caused by hepatitis C virus; most common form of post transfusion hepatitis, also is a common acute sporadic hepatitis; may also follow parental drug abuse.
CSP

A viral infection caused by the hepatitis C virus.
NCI

Hepatitis C is one type of hepatitis – a liver disease – caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with infected blood. It can also spread through sex with an infected person and from mother to baby during childbirth.

Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don`t have any symptoms for years. A blood test can tell if you have it. Usually, hepatitis C does not get better by itself. The infection can last a lifetime and may lead to scarring of the liver or liver cancer. Medicines sometimes help, but side effects can be a problem. Serious cases may need a liver transplant.

There is no vaccine for HCV.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


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buňky – stárnutí

The decrease in the cell`s ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
MSH

final stage of cellular differentiation, characterized by inability to grow, divide, or repair damaged cell components, leading to cell death.
CSP

Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan. [GOC:jh, PMID:12044934]
GO

A cell aging process stimulated in response to cellular stress, whereby normal cells lose the ability to divide through irreversible cell cycle arrest. [GOC:BHF]
GO

A cellular senescence process associated with the dismantling of a cell as a response to telomere shortening and/or cellular aging. [GOC:BHF]
GO

Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan.
NCI

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textilní průmysl

The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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Mukopolysacharidóza V

An autosomal recessive disorder representing the milder form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. It is characterized by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase. Signs and symptoms include broad mouth with full lips, cloudy cornea which may lead to blindness, stiff joints, and hirsutism.
NCI

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postgastrektomické syndromy

Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
MSH

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herpes simplex virus – protein Vmw65

Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
MSH

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