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žluč – reflux

Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
MSH

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hematokolpos

A blood-filled VAGINA that is obstructed.
MSH

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Medicago sativa

plant species of the family Fabaceae widely cultivated for animal feed.
CSP

A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for animal feed.
MSH

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radioalergosorpční test

An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
MSH

A type of blood test used to test for allergies.
NCI

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poškození DNA

Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
MSH

drug or radiation effects on DNA that interfere with normal function, including conformational distortions and covalent gene mutations.
CSP

Drug-, radiation-induced, or spontaneous injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal double-helical conformation. These changes include structural distortions that interfere with replication and transcription, as well as point mutations that disrupt base pairs and exert damaging effects on future generations through changes in DNA sequence. If the damage is minor, it can often be repaired (DNA repair); extensive damage can induce apoptosis.
NCI

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molekulární biologie

A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
MSH

study of biological processes at the molecular level, including membrane biochemistry, cytoskeleton biochemistry, and structural biology in addition to molecular genetics (see NTs and RTs).
CSP

The study of biology at a molecular level. It chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. The field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly genetics and biochemistry.
NCI

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biografie

Works consisting of an account of the events, works, and achievements, personal and professional, during a person`s life. It includes articles on the activities and accomplishments of living persons as well as the presentation of an obituary.
MSH

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hemokyanin

protein found in the blood of mollusks and arthropods which imparts its blue color.
CSP

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nelékařská zdravotnická povolání

Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.
MSH

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radiotherapeutic

Used with disease headings for the therapeutic use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation. It includes the use of radioisotope therapy.
MSH

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DNA superspirálová

Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
MSH

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monoacylglycerollipasy

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
MSH

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biopterin

A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
MSH

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hemoperfúze

Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).
MSH

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alfa-amanitin

A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
MSH

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Rattus norvegicus

The common rat, Rattus norvegicus, often used as an experimental organism.
NCI

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dvojitá vazba – interakce

Simultaneous communication of conflicting messages in which the response to either message evokes rejection or disapproval. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
MSH

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morfin

The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
MSH

principal and most active narcotic alkaloid of opium, having powerful analgesic action and some central stimulant action; abuse leads to dependence.
CSP

An opiate alkaloid isolated from the plant Papaver somniferum and produced synthetically. Morphine binds to and activates specific opiate receptors (delta, mu and kappa), each of which are involved in controlling different brain functions. In the central nervous and gastrointestinal systems, this agent exhibits widespread effects including analgesia, anxiolysis, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, and gastrointestinal system smooth muscle contraction. (NCI04)
NCI

a kind of narcotic pain relieving drug
CHV

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virus BK

A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
MSH

A double stranded DNA virus in the polyomavirus family. It is widespread but usually causes an asymptomatic infection, except in immunocompromised individuals.
NCI

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heparin nízkomolekulární

Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
MSH

Substances comprised of fragmented heparin molecules derived from unfractionated heparin that bind to antithrombin III with a molecular weight ranging from 1000 to 10,000 daltons, which causes changes in property from unfractionated heparin, including decreased protein binding, enhanced bioavailability, decreased platelet interaction, and decreased binding to thrombin.
NCI

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processus alveolaris

The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
MSH

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rozvzpomínání

The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
MSH

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léky – padělání

The addition of less desirable substance to the drug preparation.
MSH

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fluoróza zubů

A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski`s Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
MSH

A condition that results from excessive fluorine intake during tooth development. Presentation of this disorder can range from white streaks to brown stains and cracks or pits in the tooth enamel.
NCI

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mrkání

Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
MSH

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hepatitida C

INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
MSH

viral disease caused by hepatitis C virus; most common form of post transfusion hepatitis, also is a common acute sporadic hepatitis; may also follow parental drug abuse.
CSP

A viral infection caused by the hepatitis C virus.
NCI

Hepatitis C is one type of hepatitis – a liver disease – caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with infected blood. It can also spread through sex with an infected person and from mother to baby during childbirth.

Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don`t have any symptoms for years. A blood test can tell if you have it. Usually, hepatitis C does not get better by itself. The infection can last a lifetime and may lead to scarring of the liver or liver cancer. Medicines sometimes help, but side effects can be a problem. Serious cases may need a liver transplant.

There is no vaccine for HCV.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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Americká onkologická společnost

A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
MSH

A nationwide, community-based voluntary health organization, the largest private source of cancer research funds in the U.S. Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, the ACS has state divisions and more than 3,400 local offices. ACS provides information on cancer incidence, mortality, causes, manifestations, treatment, and prevention, as well as on cancer research and clinical trials, and promotes beneficial policies, laws, and regulations for patients and families affected by cancer.
NCI

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receptory histaminu H1

A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
MSH

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léčivé přípravky

Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
MSH

You may need to take medicines every day, or only once in a while. Either way, you want to make sure that the medicines are safe and will help you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety and effectiveness of both prescription and over-the-counter medicines.

Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They may not be safe during pregnancy. To reduce the risk of reactions and make sure that you get better, it is important for you to take your medicines correctly.


MEDLINEPLUS

biologically active substance, including those intended for use in diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease or other abnormalities, for the relief of suffering, or control or improvement of a physical or mental state; includes biological products.
CSP

A legal drug that is used to prevent, treat, or relieve symptoms of a disease or abnormal condition.
NCI

A drug or medicine that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease.
NCI

As defined in Section 201(g)(1) of the Title 21 Chapter 9 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act any article that is recognized in the official United States Pharmacopeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to them; article intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in humans or other animals; and article (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of humans or other animals.
NCI

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Mukopolysacharidóza V

An autosomal recessive disorder representing the milder form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. It is characterized by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase. Signs and symptoms include broad mouth with full lips, cloudy cornea which may lead to blindness, stiff joints, and hirsutism.
NCI

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