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receptory buněčného povrchu

Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
MSH

cell surface proteins that bind signaling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell; not all cell surface receptors are tree`d under this term.
CSP

A receptor protein that is localized to the plasma membrane and may have exposure to the extracellular milieu.
NCI

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kondomy

A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
MSH

A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane. The condom is used for contraceptive and for prophylactic purposes (preventing transmission of venereal disease). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of infertility.
SPN

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keratóza aktinická

A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin.
NCI

White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.
MSH

precancerous thick and scaly patches of skin
CHV

A precancerous lesion of the skin composed of atypical keratinocytes. It is characterized by the presence of thick, scaly patches of skin. Several histologic variants have been described, including atrophic, acantholytic, and hyperkeratotic variants.
NCI

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aminace

The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
MSH

creation of an amine by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
CSP

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extraorální trakční přístroje

Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.
MSH

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receptory serotoninové

Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
MSH

diverse family of receptors that mediate the effects of serotonin on neurons, lymphocytes, and other cells; in neurons, serotonin can be either excitatory or inhibitory; some serotonin receptors are G protein coupled.
CSP

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zachování přírodních zdrojů

The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
MSH

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ledviny – glomerulus

A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
MSH

globular tufts of capillaries, one projecting into the expanded end or capsule of each the uriniferous tubules.
CSP

A tiny, round cluster of blood vessels within the kidneys. It filters the blood to reabsorb useful materials and remove waste as urine.
NCI

A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue. (MeSH)
NCI

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kyselina aminolevulová

A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
MSH

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent.
NCI

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C234″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. (NCI04)
NCI

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brýle

A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
MSH

Frames with lenses worn in front of the eye for vision correction, eye protection, or protection from UV rays.
NCI

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nucleus ruber

A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
MSH

pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum receiving a large projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex.
CSP

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antikoncepční látky orální kombinované

Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
MSH

A pill used to prevent pregnancy. It contains hormones that block the release of eggs from the ovaries. Most birth control pills include estrogen and progestin.
NCI

Orally administered synthetic sex hormones with contraceptive activity. The oral contraceptive preparation contains a combination of an estrogen, such as ethinyl estradiol, and a progestagen, such as levonorgestrel or norethidrone. The oral contraceptive prevents pregnancy by preventing ovulation and by inducing endometrial and cervical changes undesirable for fertilization and implantation.
NCI

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Klebsiella

genus of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains; this genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
MSH

A bacteria that frequently causes lung, urinary tract, intestinal, and wound infections.
NCI

a kind of bacteria that frequently causes lung, urinary tract, intestinal, and wound infections
CHV

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Klebsiella genus level.
NCI

A genus of Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that have a polysaccharide-based capsule and are oxidase negative. Klebsiella spp. are frequent human pathogens.
NCI

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amodiachin

A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
MSH

An orally active 4-aminoquinoline derivative with antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties. Similar in structure and activity to chloroquine, amodiaquine is effective against some chloroquine-resistant strains, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite. Although the mechanism of plasmodicidal action has not been fully elucidated, like other quinoline derivatives, amodiaquine likely is able to inhibit heme polymerase activity in the body. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites.
NCI

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faktor X

Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
MSH

Coagulation factor X (488 aa, 55 kDa) is encoded by the human F10 gene. This protein is involved in proteolysis and blood coagulation.
NCI

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regresní analýza

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
MSH

Regression analysis provides a “best-fit” mathematical equation for the relationship between the dependent variable (response) and independent variable(s) (covariates). There are two major classes of regression – parametric and non-parametric. Parametric regression requires choice of the regression equation with one or a greater number of unknown parameters. Linear regression, in which a linear relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables is posited, is an example. The aim of parametric regression is to find the values of these parameters which provide the best fit to the data. The number of parameters is usually much smaller than the number of data points. In contrast, the non-parametric regression requires no such a choice of the regression equation. (Statistics.com Glossary)
NCI

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koproporfyrinogeny

Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
MSH

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kyselina kynurenová

A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
MSH

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amyloidóza

A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
MSH

any disease manifested by the pathogenic accumulation of amyloid in organs and tissues.
CSP

A group of diseases in which protein builds up in certain organs (localized amyloidosis) or throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). Amyloidosis may be either primary (with no known cause), secondary (caused by another disease, including some types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma), or hereditary (passed down from parents to children). Many organs are affected by amyloidosis. The organs affected may depend on whether the amyloidosis is the primary, secondary, or hereditary form.
NCI

A group of diseases in which protein is deposited in specific organs or throughout the body.
CHV

Amyloidosis occurs when abnormal proteins build up and form deposits. The deposits can collect in organs such as the kidney and heart. This can cause the organs to become stiff and unable to work the way they should.

There are three main types of amyloidosis:

  • Primary – with no known cause
  • Secondary – caused by another disease, including some types of cancer
  • Familial – passed down through genes

Treatment depends on the type of amyloidosis you have.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the localized or diffuse accumulation of amyloid protein in various anatomic sites. It may be primary, due to clonal plasma cell proliferations; secondary, due to long standing infections, chronic inflammatory disorders, or malignancies; or familial. It may affect the nerves, skin, tongue, joints, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands.
NCI

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rodinná terapie

A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
MSH

form of group psychotherapy involving the treatment of more than one member of a family simultaneously in the same session.
CSP

A type of therapy in which the whole family talks with a professional counselor to solve family problems.
NCI

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nemocnice náboženských organizací

Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
MSH

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ohledači mrtvol a lékařští vyšetřovatelé

Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
MSH

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Traanklieren

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate the lacrimal sac. Examples: There only two instances, right lacrimal and left lacrimal glands.
FMA

A gland that secretes tears. The lacrimal glands are found in the upper, outer part of each eye socket.
NCI

Paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands situated superior and posterior to each orbit of the eye that produce and secrete the watery serous component of tears.
NCI

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srpkovitá anémie

A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
MSH

disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs; the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
CSP

Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don`t last as long as normal, round red blood cells, which leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow. This can cause pain and organ damage.

A genetic problem causes sickle cell anemia. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. If you only have one sickle cell gene, it`s called sickle cell trait. About 1 in 12 African Americans has sickle cell trait. A blood test can show if you have the trait or anemia. Most states test newborn babies as part of their newborn screening programs.


MEDLINEPLUS

An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent.
NCI

A blood disorder characterized by the appearance of sickle-shaped red blood cells and anemia.
NCI

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anatomy & histology (qualifier)

Used with organs, regions, and tissues for normal descriptive anatomy and histology, and for the normal anatomy and structure of animals and plants.
MSH

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kyseliny mastné esenciální

Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
MSH

long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet.
CSP

Used to indicate a fatty acid that is not efficiently synthesized by humans and must be included in the diet.
NCI

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reprodukce nepohlavní

Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from “parent” cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
MSH

The biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process. [ISBN:0387520546]
GO

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cosyntropin

A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

A synthetically-derived subunit of the endogenous peptide pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Consisting of the first 24 amino acids from the amino terminal of ACTH, Cortrosyn is usually prepared for injection and intended for diagnostic and not therapeutic use. Similar to endogenous ACTH, this agent stimulates the adrenal secretion of specific adrenal steroids that can be measured in the plasma. (NCI04)
NCI

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Langerův-Giedionův syndrom

Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cone-shaped epiphyses in the hands and multiple cartilaginous exostoses. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and abnormalities of chromosome 8 are often present. The exostoses in this syndrome appear identical to those of hereditary multiple exostoses (EXOSTOSES, HEREDITARY MULTIPLE).
MSH

A rare, usually sporadic and less frequently familiar syndrome caused by deletions on the long arm of chromosome 8. It is characterized by distinctive facial appearance (sparse hair, pear-shaped nose, and large ears), multiple exostoses, redundant skin, and mental retardation.
NCI

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Angiogenesis Factor

group of agents that induce or stimulate the physiologic angiogenesis process.
CSP

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