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maximální přípustná koncentrace

The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
MSH

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cytochemie

Branch of histochemistry associated with the localization of cellular components by specific staining methods, as for example the localization of acid phosphatases by the Gomori method.
NCI

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globus pallidus

The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
MSH

Nucleus of brain which is located medially to the putamen and laterally to the internal capsule.
FMA

The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus. (MeSH)
NCI

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anus

The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded.
NCI

The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
NCI

The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded. (NCI)
NCI

The external outlet of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
MSH

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RNA transferová Gln

A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
MSH

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ošetřovatelský proces

The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).
MSH

sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).
CSP

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mediastinum

mass of tissues and organs separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly and from the thoracic inlet superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly; contains the heart, pericardium, the bases of the great vessels, the trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, and the phrenic and vagus nerves.
CSP

The area between the lungs. The organs in this area include the heart and its large blood vessels, the trachea, the esophagus, the thymus, and lymph nodes but not the lungs.
NCI

Subdivsion of thoracic compartment which has as its parts the superior mediastinum and inferior mediastinum.
FMA

A group of organs surrounded by loose connective tissue, separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly as well as from the thoracic inlet superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly. The mediastinum contains the heart and pericardium, the bases of the great vessels, the trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, phrenic and vagus nerves, and other structures and tissues. (NCI)
NCI

A group of organs surrounded by loose connective tissue, separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly as well as from the thoracic inlet superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly. The mediastinum contains the heart and pericardium, the bases of the great vessels, the trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, phrenic and vagus nerves, and other structures and tissues.
NCI

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cytofotometrie

A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.
MSH

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glukosaoxidasa

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
MSH

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afakie po kataraktě

Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
MSH

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Romanův-Wardův syndrom

A form of long QT syndrome that is without congenital deafness. It is caused by mutation of the KCNQ1 gene which encodes a protein in the VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL.
MSH

An autosomal dominant form of long QT syndrome caused by mutations in the KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNH2, KCNQ1, SCN5A, and ANK2 genes. It is manifested with arrhythmias.
NCI

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obezita

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
MSH

excessively high accumulation of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass; the amount of body fat (or adiposity) includes concern for both the distribution of fat throughout the body and the size of the adipose tissue deposits; individuals are usually at high clinical risk because of excess amount of body fat (BMI greater than 30).
CSP

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person`s weight is greater than what`s considered healthy for his or her height.

Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might tip the balance include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods and not being physically active.

Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis and some cancers. If you are obese, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by having a high amount of body fat.
NCI

A condition marked by an abnormally high, unhealthy amount of body fat.
NCI

Having a high amount of body fat (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or more).
NCI

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lékařství

The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
MSH

general term for health care, nursing, and medical practice specialties; see also the RTs treed elsewhere.
CSP

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

The science of dealing with the maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of disease.
NCI

Refers to the practices and procedures used for the prevention, treatment, or relief of symptoms of a diseases or abnormal conditions. This term may also refer to a legal drug used for the same purpose.
NCI

The branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques.
NCI

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sběr dat

Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
MSH

gathering or assemblage of information (statistics or measurements) about a system, population, etc.; do not confuse with SAMPLE COLLECTION (PHYSICAL).
CSP

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glutathiontransferasa

A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
MSH

A family of enzymes involved in metabolism and in making toxic compounds less harmful to the body.
NCI

A class of enzymes that catalyze the reaction of glutathione with an acceptor molecule (an arene oxide) to form an S-substituted glutathione; a key step in detoxification of many substances; start of the mercapturic acid pathway.
NCI

A group of enzymes of broad specificity. It catalyzes reaction of substrates RX and glutathione into HX and R-S-Glutathione. R may be an aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic group; X may be a sulfate, nitrile or halide group. Also catalyses the addition of aliphatic epoxides and arene oxides to glutathione, the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrile, certain isomerization reactions and disulfide interchange. [EC 2.5.1.18 created 1976 (EC 2.5.1.12, EC 2.5.1.13, EC 2.5.1.14 and EC 4.4.1.7 created 1972, incorporated 1976)]
NCI

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schůzky a rozvrhy

The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.
MSH

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Rubinsteinův-Taybiův syndrom

A chromosomal disorder characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION, broad thumbs, webbing of fingers and toes, beaked nose, short upper lip, pouting lower lip, agenesis of corpus callosum, large foramen magnum, keloid formation, pulmonary stenosis, vertebral anomalies, chest wall anomalies, sleep apnea, and megacolon. The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and is associated with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13.3).
MSH

A rare genetic syndrome mapped to chromosome 16p13.3 and associated with mutations in the CREBBP gene. It is characterized by mental and growth retardation, distinctive facial features (prominent nose, low-set ears, microcephaly, and small mouth), and broad thumbs and great toes. Patients are at an increased risk of developing benign and malignant neoplasms, including nervous system neoplasms and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.
NCI

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Octodon

A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
MSH

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melanom

A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
MSH

malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites; occurring mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo; frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved.
CSP

A form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). It may begin in a mole (skin melanoma), but can also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye or in the intestines.
NCI

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma may also appear as a new mole. It may be black, abnormal or "ugly looking."

Thinking of "ABCD" can help you remember what to watch for:

  • Asymmetry – the shape of one half does not match the other
  • Border – the edges are ragged, blurred or irregular
  • Color – the color in uneven and may include shades of black, brown and tan
  • Diameter – there is a change in size, usually an increase

Melanoma can be cured if it is diagnosed and treated early. If melanoma is not removed in its early stages, cancer cells may grow downward from the skin surface and invade healthy tissue. If it spreads to other parts of the body it can be difficult to control.


MEDLINEPLUS

A malignant, usually aggressive tumor composed of atypical, neoplastic melanocytes. Most often, melanomas arise in the skin (cutaneous melanomas) and include the following histologic subtypes: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma, and lentigo maligna melanoma. Cutaneous melanomas may arise from acquired or congenital melanocytic or dysplastic nevi. Melanomas may also arise in other anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal system, eye, urinary tract, and reproductive system. Melanomas frequently metastasize to lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain.
NCI

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decidua

The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
MSH

endometrium of the pregnant uterus; shed at parturition, except for the deepest layer.
CSP

The epithelial tissue of the endometrium.
NCI

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glykogensynthetasofosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.
MSH

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arbaprostil

A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and can inhibit the growth of experimental tumors.
MSH

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bezpečnost

Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
MSH

The state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions.
NCI

Relative freedom from harm. In clinical trials, this refers to an absence of harmful side effects resulting from use of the product and may be assessed by laboratory testing of biological samples, special tests and procedures, psychiatric evaluation, and/or physical examination of subjects.
NCI

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oleje prchavé

Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
MSH

The scented liquid taken from certain plants using steam or pressure. Essential oils contain the natural chemicals that give the plant its “essence” (specific odor and flavor). Essential oils are used in perfumes, food flavorings, medicine, and aromatherapy.
NCI

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vitamin K 3

synthetic vitamin K; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone.
CSP

A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
MSH

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kyselina dehydroaskorbová

The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
MSH

The oxidized form of ascorbic acid; it can be readily reduced to ascorbic acid in vivo.
NCI

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struma uzlová

An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
MSH

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Arménie

An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
MSH

A country in Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Salmonella arizonae

Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
MSH

A subspecies of aerobic, Gram negative, rod shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria and the species Salmonella enterica. S. enterica subsp. arizonae is an inhabitant of the gut of reptiles and is pathogenic in humans, although is rarely isolated from clinical specimens.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae.
NCI

a kind of bacteria found it in some reptiles that causes bone and joint diseases in human
CHV

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omeprazol

A highly effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase (H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE) in the proton pump of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
MSH

substituted benzimidazole used as a gastric acid secretion inhibitor.
CSP

A drug that inhibits gastric acid secretion.
NCI

A benzimidazole with selective and irreversible proton pump inhibition activity. Omeprazole forms a stable disulfide bond with the sulfhydryl group of the hydrogen-potassium (H+ – K+) ATPase found on the secretory surface of parietal cells, thereby inhibiting the final transport of hydrogen ions (via exchange with potassium ions) into the gastric lumen and suppressing gastric acid secretion. This agent exhibits no anticholinergic properties and does not antagonize histamine H2 receptors. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42309&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42309&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C716″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A benzimidazole with selective and irreversible proton pump inhibition activity. Omeprazole forms a stable disulfide bond with the sulfhydryl group of the hydrogen-potassium (H+ – K+) ATPase found on the secretory surface of parietal cells, thereby inhibiting the final transport of hydrogen ions (via exchange with potassium ions) into the gastric lumen and suppressing gastric acid secretion. This agent exhibits no anticholinergic activities and does not antagonize histamine H2 receptors.
NCI

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