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reprodukce nepohlavní

Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from “parent” cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
MSH

The biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process. [ISBN:0387520546]
GO

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institut lékařství (USA)

Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
MSH

As part of the National Academy of Science, identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
NCI

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kondomy

A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
MSH

A condom is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane. The condom is used for contraceptive and for prophylactic purposes (preventing transmission of venereal disease). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of infertility.
SPN

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dýchání – mechanika

The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
MSH

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pojištění zákonné odpovědnosti

Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.
MSH

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epichlorhydrin

A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.
MSH

A volatile and flammable, clear, colorless, liquid, chlorinated cyclic ether with an irritating, chloroform-like odor that emits toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid and other chlorinated compounds when heated to decomposition. Epichlorohydrin is used in the manufacture of epoxy resins, synthetic glycerin and elastomers. Exposure to epichlorohydrin irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and can cause chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and renal lesions. This substance also affects the blood. Epichlorohydrin is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen and may be associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory cancer. (NCI05)
NCI

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zachování přírodních zdrojů

The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
MSH

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arteria retinalis

Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
MSH

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interleukin-1

A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
MSH

macrophage produced interleukin that induces the production of interleukin 2 by T cells that have been stimulated by antigen or mitogen; at least two types, alpha and beta, exist; interleukin 1 or a similar protein is also produced by epithelial cells and stimulates fibroblast proliferation and release of proteolytic enzymes and prostaglandins in inflammatory processes.
CSP

One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1 is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. There are two forms of IL-1, alpha and beta, which act the same. IL-1 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1 is a type of cytokine.
NCI

Human interleukin-1 protein (271 aa, 31 kD precursor) is encoded by the human interleukin-1 (IL1) gene. This soluble protein is produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages. It activates and potentiates T-lymphocyte responses to mitogens or antigens. This protein is also capable of replacing macrophage requirements for T-cell activation
NCI

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epirubicin

An anthracycline which is the 4`-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
MSH

A 4`-epi-isomer of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Epirubicin intercalates into DNA and inhibits topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ultimately, interfering with RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also produces toxic free-radical intermediates and interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation.
NCI

A drug used together with other drugs to treat early breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Epirubicin is a type of anthracycline antibiotic.
NCI

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antikoncepční látky orální kombinované

Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
MSH

A pill used to prevent pregnancy. It contains hormones that block the release of eggs from the ovaries. Most birth control pills include estrogen and progestin.
NCI

Orally administered synthetic sex hormones with contraceptive activity. The oral contraceptive preparation contains a combination of an estrogen, such as ethinyl estradiol, and a progestagen, such as levonorgestrel or norethidrone. The oral contraceptive prevents pregnancy by preventing ovulation and by inducing endometrial and cervical changes undesirable for fertilization and implantation.
NCI

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retrospektivní studie

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
MSH

A study in which known outcomes are examined in hindsight using existing records.
NCI

A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not.
NCI

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meziobratlová ploténka

plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae in the spine, each consisting of a fibrous ring enclosing a pulpy center.
CSP

Spongy discs located between the vertebrae of the spinal column; composed of the outer annulus fibrosus and inner nucleus pulposus.
NCI

Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
MSH

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erbium

Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.
MSH

An element with atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.259.
NCI

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koproporfyrinogeny

Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
MSH

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rinitida

Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
MSH

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.
CSP

an inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
CHV

An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose, usually associated with nasal discharge.
NCI

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nitroděložní antikoncepční prostředky – vypuzení

Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
MSH

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erytroblasty

Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.
MSH

Red blood cells that are at the last stage of development, still containing a nucleus, that are found in the bone marrow and occasionally in the peripheral blood.
NCI

An immature, nucleated erythrocyte occupying the stage of erythropoiesis that follows formation of erythroid progenitor cells and precedes formation of reticulocytes.
NCI

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ohledači mrtvol a lékařští vyšetřovatelé

Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
MSH

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ribavirin

A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
MSH

1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamid e; antiretroviral agent with potential efficacy against AIDS.
CSP

A drug used to treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the lungs.
NCI

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40325&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40325&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C807″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. (NCI04)
NCI

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srpkovitá anémie

A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
MSH

disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs; the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
CSP

Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don`t last as long as normal, round red blood cells, which leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow. This can cause pain and organ damage.

A genetic problem causes sickle cell anemia. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. If you only have one sickle cell gene, it`s called sickle cell trait. About 1 in 12 African Americans has sickle cell trait. A blood test can show if you have the trait or anemia. Most states test newborn babies as part of their newborn screening programs.


MEDLINEPLUS

An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent.
NCI

A blood disorder characterized by the appearance of sickle-shaped red blood cells and anemia.
NCI

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jodofory

Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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divertikly jícnu

Saccular protrusion beyond the wall of the ESOPHAGUS.
MSH

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cosyntropin

A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

A synthetically-derived subunit of the endogenous peptide pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Consisting of the first 24 amino acids from the amino terminal of ACTH, Cortrosyn is usually prepared for injection and intended for diagnostic and not therapeutic use. Similar to endogenous ACTH, this agent stimulates the adrenal secretion of specific adrenal steroids that can be measured in the plasma. (NCI04)
NCI

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Orientia tsutsugamushi

A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.
MSH

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Angiogenesis Factor

group of agents that induce or stimulate the physiologic angiogenesis process.
CSP

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iridoviry

A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
MSH

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nukleární rodina

A family composed of spouses and their children.
MSH

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estrany

A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.
MSH

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kraniofaciální dysostóza

Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.
MSH

autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly, exophthalmos, hypertelorism, strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, and hypoplastic maxilla with relative mandibular prognathism.
CSP

A syndrome inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by early fusion of the bones of the skull and face. Patients have a distinctive facial appearance which includes low-set ears, brachycephaly, hypertelorism, exophthalmos, and mandibular prognathism.
NCI

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