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rozštěp patra

congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.
CSP

A congenital abnormality consisting of a fissure in the midline of the hard and/or soft palate; it is the result of the failure of the two sides of the palate to fuse during embryonic development.
NCI

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alfa-2-adrenergní receptory

A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
MSH

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lichen planus

An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a “saw-tooth” pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.
MSH

inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized; characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces; lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques.
CSP

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pyelitida

Inflammation of the KIDNEY PELVIS and KIDNEY CALICES where urine is collected before discharge, but does not involve the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS) where urine is processed.
MSH

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potraviny

Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
MSH

anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat.
CSP

A group of materials of either plant, animal or artificial origin containing essential body nutrients that can be ingested by an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth, and maintain life.
NCI

A group of substances which are consumed by humans and animals.
NCI

A substance consumed by humans and animals for nutritional purposes. EXAMPLE(S): broccoli, donuts, pet treats
NCI

Description:The introduction of material into a subject with the intent of providing nutrition or other dietary supplements (e.g. minerals or vitamins).


HL7V3.0

Processed or unprocessed substances obtained from animal, plant, microorganism and mining source that provide nutrients for living organisms to maintain biological processes or functions.
NCI

Naturally occurring, processed or manufactured entities that are primarily used as food for humans and animals.


HL7V3.0

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Cloning

Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone. The most famous clone was a Scottish sheep named Dolly.

There are three different types of cloning:

  • Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or segments of DNA
  • Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals
  • Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body.

NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

An identical copy of a DNA sequence or entire gene; one or more cells derived from and identical to a single ancestor cell OR to isolate a gene or specific sequence of DNA.
NCI

Any of the techniques that produce identical individuals.
NCI

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syndrom přívodné kličky

A complication of gastrojejunostomy (BILLROTH II PROCEDURE), a reconstructive GASTROENTEROSTOMY. It is caused by acute (complete) or chronic (intermittent) obstruction of the afferent jejunal loop due to HERNIA, intussusception, kinking, VOLVULUS, etc. It is characterized by PAIN and VOMITING of BILE-stained fluid.
MSH

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lingvistika

The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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pyridoxamin

The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
MSH

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noha – nemoci

Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
MSH

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dehet uhelný

A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
MSH

A dark brown or black thick liquid obtained by roasting pine wood or formed as a by-product in the production of coke. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic substances, including benzene, phenols, sulfur, aniline, toluene, xylene, naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. This substance is used to treat certain skin diseases, especially psoriasis, and is used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs, explosives, flavorings, perfumes, preservatives, synthetic resins, paints and stains. Coal tar exposure leads to an increased risk of developing cancer of skin, lung, bladder, kidney and digestive tract as well as leukemia. It is known to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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aglutinace – testy

Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

mixing of antibodies with their corresponding antigens on the surface of large, easily sedimented particles such as animal cells, erythrocytes, or bacteria; the antibodies cross-link the particles, forming visible clumps.
CSP

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AZALEKO LIPOMA

A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
MSH

Skin Biopsy, Diagnostic of PSS: skin biopsy revealing increased compact collagen in the reticular dermis, thinning of the epidermis, loss of rete pegs, atrophy of dermal appendages, and hyalinization and fibrosis of arterioles.
AIR

A benign (not cancer) tumor made of fat cells.
NCI

A benign, usually painless, well-circumscribed lipomatous tumor composed of adipose tissue.
NCI

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pyruvate dehydrogenase

a component of the multi-enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex also another name for EC 4.1.1.1, PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE, do not confuse.
CSP

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kyselina formiminoglutamová

Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.
MSH

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kodon

A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
MSH

A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.
NCI

In DNA or RNA, a sequence of 3 consecutive nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid or signals the termination of gene translation (stop or termination codon).
NCI

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letadla

A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
MSH

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litotripse

The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
MSH

the destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter; focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery; lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis.
CSP

A procedure to break a stone into small particles that can be more easily cleared from the body.
NCI

a medical procedure to break up stones that form in the kidney, bladder or ureters so that they can be passed out of the body in the urine
CHV

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chinestrol

The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)
MSH

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framycetin

A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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Colinus

A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.
MSH

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alkoholické nápoje

drinkable liquids containing ethanol.
CSP

A drink, including beer, wine or liquor, that is made by fermentation of raw materials. An alcoholic beverage contains ethanol (alcohol) as the active ingredient.
NCI

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orientační tabule a značení

Directory signs or listings of designated areas within or without a facility.
MSH

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radiační genetika

a subdiscipline of genetics that studies radiation effects on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
CSP

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fruktosa

A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
MSH

six carbon sugar that is a component of a number of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, generally the sweetest and most readily absorbed, found naturally in sweet fruits and honey.
CSP

A hexose with a keto group, also called a keto-hexose. Aside from the keto group, each of the 5 remaining carbons has one hydroxyl group, in the S,R, and R configuration counting from the first hydroxyl containing asymmetric carbon next to the ketone in the straight chain (=Fisher) projection. All other carbons are bound to hydrogen exclusively. Occurs mostly as furan and rarely as pyran or straight chain. When fructose forms a ring an additional “”anomeric”” asymmetric carbon is created which is denoted as “”alpha”” or “”beta””. For isomers see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fructose.
NCI

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kolonialismus

The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
MSH

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alkadieny

Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
MSH

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Lownův-Ganongův-Levineův syndrom

A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a normal QRS complex. In this syndrome, the atrial impulse conducts via the JAMES FIBERS which connect the atrium to BUNDLE OF HIS bypassing the upper ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. HEART VENTRICLES are depolarized normally through the His-Purkinje system.
MSH

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intervenční radiografie

Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
MSH

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furany

Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
MSH

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