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aminace

The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
MSH

creation of an amine by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
CSP

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volné radikály

Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
MSH

chemicals whose molecular or ionic structure includes an unpaired (“free”) electron, usually conferring high reactivity; in biological systems, most free radicals contain oxygen (prefer FREE RADICAL OXYGEN).
CSP

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism (chemical changes that take place in a cell). Free radicals can build up in cells and cause damage to other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. This damage may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
NCI

Molecules or atoms with at least one unpaired or `free` electron in the outermost electron shell. Chemically unstable, free radicals stabilize themselves by appropriating an electron from a nearby molecule, thereby damaging that molecule by altering the electron number in its outermost electron shell. By-products of both normal cell processes and environmental toxin exposure, oxygen free-radicals in high concentrations may damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, thereby increasing the risk for various diseases including cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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buněčná membrána – permeabilita

A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
MSH

property of membranes to permit passage of solvents, solutes, light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
CSP

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receptory serotoninové

Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
MSH

diverse family of receptors that mediate the effects of serotonin on neurons, lymphocytes, and other cells; in neurons, serotonin can be either excitatory or inhibitory; some serotonin receptors are G protein coupled.
CSP

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loaiáza

A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
MSH

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kyselina aminolevulová

A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
MSH

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent.
NCI

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C234″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. (NCI04)
NCI

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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Střední Amerika

southern portion of the North American continent south of Mexico and north of Columbia, including Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
CSP

The isthmus joining North America and South America, extending from the southern border of Mexico to the northern border of Colombia.
NCI

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nucleus ruber

A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
MSH

pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum receiving a large projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex.
CSP

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Ludwigova angína

Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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amodiachin

A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
MSH

An orally active 4-aminoquinoline derivative with antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties. Similar in structure and activity to chloroquine, amodiaquine is effective against some chloroquine-resistant strains, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite. Although the mechanism of plasmodicidal action has not been fully elucidated, like other quinoline derivatives, amodiaquine likely is able to inhibit heme polymerase activity in the body. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites.
NCI

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Fusarium

mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates.
CSP

A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
MSH

A genus of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that is widely distributed in soil and in association with plants.
NCI

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obiloviny

Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
MSH

whole fruit or unhusked seed of cereal grasses cultivated as food.
CSP

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regresní analýza

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
MSH

Regression analysis provides a “best-fit” mathematical equation for the relationship between the dependent variable (response) and independent variable(s) (covariates). There are two major classes of regression – parametric and non-parametric. Parametric regression requires choice of the regression equation with one or a greater number of unknown parameters. Linear regression, in which a linear relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables is posited, is an example. The aim of parametric regression is to find the values of these parameters which provide the best fit to the data. The number of parameters is usually much smaller than the number of data points. In contrast, the non-parametric regression requires no such a choice of the regression equation. (Statistics.com Glossary)
NCI

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luteom

An ovarian neoplasm composed of LUTEAL CELLS derived from luteinized GRANULOSA CELLS and THECA CELLS. Luteomas respond to GONADOTROPINS, and vary in their hormone production (PROGESTERONE; ESTROGENS; or ANDROGENS). During PREGNANCY, a transient type of luteoma may develop due to an exaggerated LUTEINIZATION of the OVARY.
MSH

A benign ovarian stromal tumor in which more than 90% of the tumor cells resemble steroid hormone-secreting cells. Crystals of Reinke are not present. It occurs in post-menopausal women and it is usually associated with estrogenic effects.
NCI

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amyloidóza

A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
MSH

any disease manifested by the pathogenic accumulation of amyloid in organs and tissues.
CSP

A group of diseases in which protein builds up in certain organs (localized amyloidosis) or throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). Amyloidosis may be either primary (with no known cause), secondary (caused by another disease, including some types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma), or hereditary (passed down from parents to children). Many organs are affected by amyloidosis. The organs affected may depend on whether the amyloidosis is the primary, secondary, or hereditary form.
NCI

A group of diseases in which protein is deposited in specific organs or throughout the body.
CHV

Amyloidosis occurs when abnormal proteins build up and form deposits. The deposits can collect in organs such as the kidney and heart. This can cause the organs to become stiff and unable to work the way they should.

There are three main types of amyloidosis:

  • Primary – with no known cause
  • Secondary – caused by another disease, including some types of cancer
  • Familial – passed down through genes

Treatment depends on the type of amyloidosis you have.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the localized or diffuse accumulation of amyloid protein in various anatomic sites. It may be primary, due to clonal plasma cell proliferations; secondary, due to long standing infections, chronic inflammatory disorders, or malignancies; or familial. It may affect the nerves, skin, tongue, joints, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands.
NCI

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galaktosylceramidasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC 3.2.1.46.
MSH

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mozkomíšní mok

clear colorless liquid secreted by the choroid plexus of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, and contained within the ventricular system of the brain and spinal cord and within the subarachnoid space.
CSP

Transudate contained in the subarachnoid space.
UWDA

The fluid that flows in and around the hollow spaces of the brain and spinal cord, and between two of the meninges (the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). CSF is made by tissue called the choroid plexus in the ventricles (hollow spaces) in the brain.
NCI

Transudate contained in the subarachnoid space.
FMA

The fluid that is contained within the brain ventricles, the subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord. (NCI)
NCI

The fluid that is contained within the brain ventricles, the subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord.
NCI

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nemocnice náboženských organizací

Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.
MSH

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lymfocytární choriomeningitida

A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
MSH

benign viral infection of meninges and central nervous system producing an infiltration of lymphocytes in the choroid plexus.
CSP

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anatomy & histology (qualifier)

Used with organs, regions, and tissues for normal descriptive anatomy and histology, and for the normal anatomy and structure of animals and plants.
MSH

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gamma-Tubulin

Ubiquitous or widely expressed 51-kDa conserved Gamma-Tubulins (Tubulin Family) constitute a major essential component of microtubule organizing centers such as spindle poles or centrosomes that are likely involved in minus-end nucleation of microtubule assembly. (NCI)
NCI

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cesium – isotopy

Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
MSH

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reprodukce nepohlavní

Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from “parent” cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
MSH

The biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process. [ISBN:0387520546]
GO

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lysin-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.6.
MSH

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žaludek – vyprazdňování

The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
MSH

evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
CSP

The process in which the liquid and liquid-suspended solid contents of the stomach exit through the pylorus into the duodenum. [GOC:cy, ISBN:9781416032458]
GO

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chemical synthesis

in vitro (outside the body, tissue, or cell) synthesis of chemical compounds, usually organic, other than drugs; should NOT be used for BIOSYNTHESIS; consider other more specific chemical synthesis terms, such as PEPTIDE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS or NUCLEIC ACID CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS.
CSP

Used for the chemical preparation of molecules in vitro. For the formation of chemical substances in organisms, living cells, or subcellular fractions, “biosynthesis” is used.
MSH

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dýchání – mechanika

The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
MSH

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magnety

Objects that produce a magnetic field.
MSH

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ventrikulografie radionuklidová rovnovážná

Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
MSH

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