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Cloning

Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone. The most famous clone was a Scottish sheep named Dolly.

There are three different types of cloning:

  • Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or segments of DNA
  • Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals
  • Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body.

NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

An identical copy of a DNA sequence or entire gene; one or more cells derived from and identical to a single ancestor cell OR to isolate a gene or specific sequence of DNA.
NCI

Any of the techniques that produce identical individuals.
NCI

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glukonáty

hexonic acid or its salts derived from glucose by oxidation of the aldehyde group at C-1 to a carboxyl group.
CSP

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pseudonymy

A self asserted name that the person is using or has used.


HL7V3.0

A fictitious name used when the person performs a particular social role.
NCI

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lékařský personál – výsady

Those rights or activities which are specific to members of the institution`s medical staff, including the right to admit private patients.
MSH

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aktiny

Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
MSH

globular subunit of microfilaments, whose ATP-dependent polymerization and movement underlies many dynamic cellular phenomena in addition to muscle contraction; actin is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells.
CSP

A globular subunit of microfilaments, highly conserved Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells. Monomeric actin, a slow ATPase composed of a 375 amino acid polypeptide chain, interacts with one molecule of ATP or ADP and contains high affinity and low affinity binding sites for divalent cations. Actin can quickly assemble into long microfilament polymers. In conjunction with myosin, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
NCI

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dehet uhelný

A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
MSH

A dark brown or black thick liquid obtained by roasting pine wood or formed as a by-product in the production of coke. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic substances, including benzene, phenols, sulfur, aniline, toluene, xylene, naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. This substance is used to treat certain skin diseases, especially psoriasis, and is used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs, explosives, flavorings, perfumes, preservatives, synthetic resins, paints and stains. Coal tar exposure leads to an increased risk of developing cancer of skin, lung, bladder, kidney and digestive tract as well as leukemia. It is known to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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glutaminsynthetasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
MSH

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psychologická válka

The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one`s own country and weaken the enemy.
MSH

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Meigeův syndrom

A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)
MSH

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adeninnukleotidy

condensation product of adenosine and phosphoric acid; a nucleotide found among the hydrolysis products of all nucleic acids.
CSP

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kodon

A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
MSH

A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.
NCI

In DNA or RNA, a sequence of 3 consecutive nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid or signals the termination of gene translation (stop or termination codon).
NCI

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glykogenóza typu II

An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)
MSH

autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase deficiency; large amounts of glycogen accumulate in the lysosomes of skeletal muscle, heart, liver, spinal cord, and brain; three forms have been described: the infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms; the adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy.
CSP

An autosomal recessive inherited type of glycogen storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. It results in the abnormal accumulation of glycogen in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver, and nervous system.
NCI

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psychoterapie skupinová

A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
MSH

form of psychotherapy in which two or more people meet with a group leader, usually a therapist; the group uses therapeutic forces within the group, interactions between members, and the interventions of the trained leader to achieve insight into the cause of problems, provide emotional suport, or effect changes in maladaptive behavior, thoughts, or feelings of the individual members.
CSP

A form of psychiatric treatment in which six to eight patients meet a specific number of times with a therapist. The value of this type of therapy is the opportunity for gaining insight from others into one`s life experience. (Taber`s)
NCI

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membrány umělé

Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
MSH

thin, essentially 2-dimensional structure usually having selective or total barrier properties; includes technological applications (such as those used in artificial kidney dialysis) and artificial constructs used to model biological membranes; do not confuse with MEMBRANE.
CSP

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adenosintrifosfát

An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
MSH

adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety; in addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
CSP

A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA. Adenosine triphosphate made in the laboratory is being studied in patients with advanced solid tumors to see if it can decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength.
NCI

An adenine nucleotide comprised of three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety, found in all living cells. Adenosine triphosphate is involved in energy production for metabolic processes and RNA synthesis. In addition, this substance acts as a neurotransmitter. In cancer studies, adenosine triphosphate is synthesized to examine its use to decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength.
NCI

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Colinus

A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.
MSH

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Glycyrrhiza

A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivatives, CARBENOXOLONE for example. Licorice toxicity is manifested as hypokalemia, low blood potassium. Licorice is used as flavoring and aromatic in pharmaceuticals and as candy.
MSH

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puerperium

A period after PARTURITION, from the time of giving BIRTH to the complete involution of the UTERUS to its pre-pregnant state. Puerperium generally lasts about six to eight weeks.
MSH

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GEHIEGIZKO HILEROKOA

Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
MSH

Abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding.
NCI

A disorder characterized by abnormally heavy vaginal bleeding during menses.
NCI

Heavy bleeding during regular menstruation.
NCI

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aplikace místní

The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
MSH

drug applied to a particular surface area, usually affecting only the area to which it is applied.
CSP

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kolonialismus

The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
MSH

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gonioskopie

Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
MSH

A procedure in which a gonioscope (special lens) is used to look at the front part of the eye between the cornea (the clear layer) and the iris (the colored part of the eye). Gonioscopy checks for blockages in the area where fluid drains out of the eye.
NCI

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pulzační průtok

Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
MSH

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rtuť – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
MSH

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alfa-2-adrenergní receptory

A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
MSH

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Litiáza ductus hepaticus communis

Gallstones that are present in the COMMON BILE DUCT, but are usually formed in the GALLBLADDER.
MSH

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granuloma inguinale

Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.
MSH

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pyelitida

Inflammation of the KIDNEY PELVIS and KIDNEY CALICES where urine is collected before discharge, but does not involve the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS) where urine is processed.
MSH

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metabolismus – vrozené poruchy

errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
CSP

A group of disorders present at birth that involve genetic defects leading to disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, lysosomal storage or amino acid metabolism in the body.
NCI

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syndrom přívodné kličky

A complication of gastrojejunostomy (BILLROTH II PROCEDURE), a reconstructive GASTROENTEROSTOMY. It is caused by acute (complete) or chronic (intermittent) obstruction of the afferent jejunal loop due to HERNIA, intussusception, kinking, VOLVULUS, etc. It is characterized by PAIN and VOMITING of BILE-stained fluid.
MSH

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