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ustanovení a nařízení

The fundamental principles and laws adopted by an organization for the regulation and governing of its affairs.
MSH

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ERRETINAREN DESPRENDIMENTUA

Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
MSH

separation of the inner layers of the retina from the pigment epithelium.
CSP

A disorder characterized by the separation of the inner retina layers from the underlying pigment epithelium.
NCI

An eye emergency condition which may lead to blindness if left untreated. It is characterized by the separation of the inner retina layers from the underlying pigment epithelium. Causes include trauma, advanced diabetes mellitus, high myopia, and choroid tumors. Symptoms include sudden appearance of floaters, sudden light flushes, and blurred vision.
NCI

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Naphthalene

A white, volatile, solid polycyclic hydrocarbon with a strong mothball odor. Naphthalene is obtained from either coal tar or petroleum distillation and is primarily used to manufacture phthalic anhydride, but is also used in moth repellents. Exposure to naphthalene is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver and neurological system, cataracts and retinal hemorrhage. Naphthalene is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen and may be associated with an increased risk of developing laryngeal and colorectal cancer. (NCI05)
NCI

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nemocnice – plánování

Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.
MSH

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antikoncepční látky orální syntetické

Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
MSH

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Retroviridae – proteiny onkogenní

Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
MSH

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Národní centrum pro technologii zdravotní péče (USA)

A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which coordinates and administers a program of research, demonstrations, and evaluations of medical technologies and assessments of health care technology.
MSH

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nemocnice fakultní

Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
MSH

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reprografie

reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.
CSP

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idiopatická chronická rinitida

A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.
MSH

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nekróza

The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. Distinguish it from APOPTOSIS which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
MSH

sum of the morphological changes indicative of cell death and caused by the progressive degradation action of enzymes; may affect groups of cells or part of a structure or an organ.
CSP

Refers to the death of tissues.
NCI

A permanent cessation of all vital functions of a tissue. [GOC:dph]
GO

OBSOLETE. The processes that cause necrosis, the death of tissues, in another organism. [GOC:ma]
GO

A cell death process that is morphologically characterized by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane rupture and subsequent loss of intracellular contents. [PMID:18846107]
GO

A cell death process that is morphologically characterized by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane rupture and subsequent loss of intracellular contents.
NCI

Relating to or affected by necrosis.
NCI

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lidský genom – projekt

A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
MSH

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corpus luteum

The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
MSH

yellow body derived from the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation; luteinization, the process of corpus luteum formation, is regulated by luteinizing hormone.
CSP

A group of cells that remain of the Graafian follicle following ovulation. This structure is composed of endocrine tissue and produces progesterone. This is needed to prepare the uterine lining for implantation by the fertilized egg. (NCI)
NCI

A group of cells that remain of the Graafian follicle following ovulation. This structure is composed of endocrine tissue and produces progesterone. This is needed to prepare the uterine lining for implantation by the fertilized egg.
NCI

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riboflavin – nedostatek

A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

condition due to a deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B12) which is associated with inadequate consumption of riboflavin rich foods; produces lesions of skin, digestive tract and nervous system; usually part of a multiple nutrient deficiency.
CSP

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anestézie

A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
MSH

state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation; depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
CSP

A loss of feeling or awareness caused by drugs or other substances. Anesthesia keeps patients from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures. Local anesthesia is a loss of feeling in one small area of the body. Regional anesthesia is a loss of feeling in a part of the body, such as an arm or leg. General anesthesia is a loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep.
NCI

If you are having surgery, your doctor will give you a drug called an anesthetic. Anesthetics reduce or prevent pain. There are four main types.

  • Local: numbs one small area of the body. You stay awake and alert.
  • Conscious or intravenous (IV) sedation: uses a mild sedative to relax you and pain medicine to relieve pain. You stay awake but may not remember the procedure afterwards.
  • Regional anesthesia: blocks pain in an area of the body, such an arm or leg. Epidural anesthesia, which is sometimes used during childbirth, is a type of regional anesthesia.
  • General anesthesia: affects your whole body. You go to sleep and feel nothing. You have no memory of the procedure afterwards.

The type of anesthesia your doctor chooses depends on many factors. These include the procedure you are having and your current health.


MEDLINEPLUS

Treatment with a pharmacological substance that produces a loss of feeling.
NCI

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nádory – invazivní růst

Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
MSH

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uhlovodíky acyklické

Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
MSH

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bavlníkový olej

Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
MSH

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Rickettsiaceae – infekce

Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.
MSH

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angioidní proužky

Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina.
MSH

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Nephelometry

measurement of the turbidity of a suspension using a nephelometer, an instrument that measures light scattering.
CSP

Light Scatter, Nephelometry


HL7V3.0

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nukleární magnetická rezonance

A physical phenomenon involving the interaction of atomic nuclei placed in an external magnetic field with an applied electromagnetic field oscillating at a particular frequency. Magnetic conditions within the material are measured by monitoring the radiation absorbed and emitted by the atomic nuclei. It is the underlying principle of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
NCI

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hydroterapie

External application of water for therapeutic purposes.
MSH

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kraniofaryngeom

A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke`s pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
MSH

A benign brain tumor that may be considered malignant because it can damage the hypothalamus, the area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.
NCI

A benign, partly cystic, epithelial tumor of the sellar region, presumably derived from Rathke pouch epithelium. It affects mainly children and young adults. There are two clinicopathological forms: adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The most significant factor associated with recurrence is the extent of surgical resection, with lesions greater than 5 cm in diameter carrying a markedly worse prognosis. (Adapted from WHO)
NCI

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RNA – prekursory

RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
MSH

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testování na zvířatech – alternativy

Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
MSH

methods which refine, reduce, or replace the use of animals in research; includes those projects which replace one animal species with a phylogenetically lower species.
CSP

Any method or technique that eliminates the use of animals in experiments, research, and testing.
NCI

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nervový systém – fyziologické jevy

Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

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nukleotidy

The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

nucleoside phosphates, the building blocks of nucleic acids.
CSP

A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA).
NCI

A molecule consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA; ribose in RNA). DNA and RNA are polymers comprised of many nucleotides, strung together like beads in a necklace.
NCI

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hydroxychinoliny

The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
MSH

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Crohnova nemoc

A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
MSH

gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic inflammatory infiltrates, fibrosis affecting all layers of the serosa, and development of noncaseating granulomas; most common site of involvement is the terminal ileum with the colon as the second most common.
CSP

A gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic inflammation involving all layers of the intestinal wall, noncaseating granulomas affecting the intestinal wall and regional lymph nodes, and transmural fibrosis. Crohn`s disease most commonly involves the terminal ileum; the colon is the second most common site of involvement.
NCI

Crohn`s disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. The disease can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum.

Crohn`s disease seems to run in some families. It can occur in people of all age groups but is most often diagnosed in young adults. Common symptoms are pain in the abdomen and diarrhea. Bleeding from the rectum, weight loss, joint pain, skin problems and fever may also occur. Children with the disease may have growth problems. Other problems can include intestinal blockage and malnutrition.

Treatment may include medicines, nutrition supplements, surgery or a combination of these options. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A condition in which the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed over a long period of time. Crohn disease usually affects the small intestine and colon. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, stomach cramps, vomiting, and weight loss. Crohn disease increases the risk of colorectal cancer and small intestine cancer. It is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
NCI

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