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maximální přípustná koncentrace

The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
MSH

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globus pallidus

The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
MSH

Nucleus of brain which is located medially to the putamen and laterally to the internal capsule.
FMA

The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus. (MeSH)
NCI

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alkeny

Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
MSH

unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene.
CSP

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Střední Amerika

southern portion of the North American continent south of Mexico and north of Columbia, including Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
CSP

The isthmus joining North America and South America, extending from the southern border of Mexico to the northern border of Colombia.
NCI

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radioisotopy

Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

isotopes that decay and emit radiation; either naturally occurring elements or are produced by the action of neutrons, protons, deuterons, or alpha particles; index with a specific element when appropriate, e.g., C14 index with CARBON and RADIONUCLIDE.
CSP

a chemical element that has been made radioactive
CHV

An unstable form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable. Radioisotopes may occur in nature or be made in a laboratory. In medicine, they are used in imaging tests and in treatment.
NCI

A version of a chemical element that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation during its decay to a stable form. (online dictionary)
NCI

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mediastinum

mass of tissues and organs separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly and from the thoracic inlet superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly; contains the heart, pericardium, the bases of the great vessels, the trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, and the phrenic and vagus nerves.
CSP

The area between the lungs. The organs in this area include the heart and its large blood vessels, the trachea, the esophagus, the thymus, and lymph nodes but not the lungs.
NCI

Subdivsion of thoracic compartment which has as its parts the superior mediastinum and inferior mediastinum.
FMA

A group of organs surrounded by loose connective tissue, separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly as well as from the thoracic inlet superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly. The mediastinum contains the heart and pericardium, the bases of the great vessels, the trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, phrenic and vagus nerves, and other structures and tissues. (NCI)
NCI

A group of organs surrounded by loose connective tissue, separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly as well as from the thoracic inlet superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly. The mediastinum contains the heart and pericardium, the bases of the great vessels, the trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, phrenic and vagus nerves, and other structures and tissues.
NCI

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glukosaoxidasa

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
MSH

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alopecia areata

Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
MSH

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obiloviny

Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
MSH

whole fruit or unhusked seed of cereal grasses cultivated as food.
CSP

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Rana temporaria

A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
MSH

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lékařství

The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
MSH

general term for health care, nursing, and medical practice specialties; see also the RTs treed elsewhere.
CSP

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

The science of dealing with the maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of disease.
NCI

Refers to the practices and procedures used for the prevention, treatment, or relief of symptoms of a diseases or abnormal conditions. This term may also refer to a legal drug used for the same purpose.
NCI

The branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques.
NCI

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glutathiontransferasa

A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
MSH

A family of enzymes involved in metabolism and in making toxic compounds less harmful to the body.
NCI

A class of enzymes that catalyze the reaction of glutathione with an acceptor molecule (an arene oxide) to form an S-substituted glutathione; a key step in detoxification of many substances; start of the mercapturic acid pathway.
NCI

A group of enzymes of broad specificity. It catalyzes reaction of substrates RX and glutathione into HX and R-S-Glutathione. R may be an aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic group; X may be a sulfate, nitrile or halide group. Also catalyses the addition of aliphatic epoxides and arene oxides to glutathione, the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrile, certain isomerization reactions and disulfide interchange. [EC 2.5.1.18 created 1976 (EC 2.5.1.12, EC 2.5.1.13, EC 2.5.1.14 and EC 4.4.1.7 created 1972, incorporated 1976)]
NCI

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Alternaria

A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
MSH

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mozkomíšní mok

clear colorless liquid secreted by the choroid plexus of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, and contained within the ventricular system of the brain and spinal cord and within the subarachnoid space.
CSP

Transudate contained in the subarachnoid space.
UWDA

The fluid that flows in and around the hollow spaces of the brain and spinal cord, and between two of the meninges (the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). CSF is made by tissue called the choroid plexus in the ventricles (hollow spaces) in the brain.
NCI

Transudate contained in the subarachnoid space.
FMA

The fluid that is contained within the brain ventricles, the subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord. (NCI)
NCI

The fluid that is contained within the brain ventricles, the subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord.
NCI

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Raynaudova nemoc

intermittent attacks of ischemia in the fingers, toes, ears, or nose, accompanied by pain, pallor, and prickling; phenomenon applies to secondary symptoms, disease when cause is unknown.
CSP

Raynaud`s disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. People with this disorder have attacks that cause the blood vessels to narrow. When this happens, blood can`t get to the surface of the skin and the affected areas turn white and blue. When the blood flow returns, the skin turns red and throbs or tingles. In severe cases, loss of blood flow can cause sores or tissue death. Cold weather and stress can trigger attacks. Often the cause of Raynaud`s is not known. People in colder climates are more likely to develop Raynaud`s than people in warmer areas.

Treatment for Raynaud`s may include drugs to keep the blood vessels open. There are also simple things you can do yourself, such as

  • Soaking hands in warm water at the first sign of an attack
  • Keeping your hands and feet warm in cold weather

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

blood vessel disease that causes exaggerated responses to cold and stress with poor blood circulation
CHV

An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
MSH

An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by ischemic attacks in the fingers, toes, ears, or nose, associated with pain and pallor. The attacks occur during exposure to cold temperatures or stress.
NCI

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melanom

A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
MSH

malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites; occurring mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo; frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved.
CSP

A form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). It may begin in a mole (skin melanoma), but can also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye or in the intestines.
NCI

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma may also appear as a new mole. It may be black, abnormal or "ugly looking."

Thinking of "ABCD" can help you remember what to watch for:

  • Asymmetry – the shape of one half does not match the other
  • Border – the edges are ragged, blurred or irregular
  • Color – the color in uneven and may include shades of black, brown and tan
  • Diameter – there is a change in size, usually an increase

Melanoma can be cured if it is diagnosed and treated early. If melanoma is not removed in its early stages, cancer cells may grow downward from the skin surface and invade healthy tissue. If it spreads to other parts of the body it can be difficult to control.


MEDLINEPLUS

A malignant, usually aggressive tumor composed of atypical, neoplastic melanocytes. Most often, melanomas arise in the skin (cutaneous melanomas) and include the following histologic subtypes: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma, and lentigo maligna melanoma. Cutaneous melanomas may arise from acquired or congenital melanocytic or dysplastic nevi. Melanomas may also arise in other anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal system, eye, urinary tract, and reproductive system. Melanomas frequently metastasize to lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain.
NCI

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glykogensynthetasofosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.
MSH

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Ambystoma

A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
MSH

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cesium – isotopy

Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
MSH

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receptory buněčného povrchu

Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
MSH

cell surface proteins that bind signaling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell; not all cell surface receptors are tree`d under this term.
CSP

A receptor protein that is localized to the plasma membrane and may have exposure to the extracellular milieu.
NCI

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vitamin K 3

synthetic vitamin K; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone.
CSP

A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
MSH

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struma uzlová

An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
MSH

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aminace

The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
MSH

creation of an amine by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
CSP

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chemical synthesis

in vitro (outside the body, tissue, or cell) synthesis of chemical compounds, usually organic, other than drugs; should NOT be used for BIOSYNTHESIS; consider other more specific chemical synthesis terms, such as PEPTIDE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS or NUCLEIC ACID CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS.
CSP

Used for the chemical preparation of molecules in vitro. For the formation of chemical substances in organisms, living cells, or subcellular fractions, “biosynthesis” is used.
MSH

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receptory serotoninové

Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
MSH

diverse family of receptors that mediate the effects of serotonin on neurons, lymphocytes, and other cells; in neurons, serotonin can be either excitatory or inhibitory; some serotonin receptors are G protein coupled.
CSP

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asociace pro duševní zdraví

Voluntary organizations which support educational programs and research in psychiatry with the objective of the promotion of mental health. An early association in the United States was founded as the National Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1909, became the Mental Health Association in 1976 and later the National Mental Health Association in 1980. State and local mental health associations in this country are chartered by the national organization and affiliated with it.
MSH

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vládní organizace

Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
MSH

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kyselina aminolevulová

A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
MSH

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent.
NCI

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C234″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. (NCI04)
NCI

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Chiariho-Frommelův syndrom

A POSTPARTUM condition consists of persistent lactation (GALACTORRHEA) and AMENORRHEA in patients not BREAST FEEDING.
MSH

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nucleus ruber

A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
MSH

pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum receiving a large projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex.
CSP

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