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alamethicin

A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

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chinoliziny

bicylic, 10-membered ring structure with one tertiary nitrogen shared by both rings; found in the rauwolfia and other alkaloids.
CSP

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chemical synthesis

in vitro (outside the body, tissue, or cell) synthesis of chemical compounds, usually organic, other than drugs; should NOT be used for BIOSYNTHESIS; consider other more specific chemical synthesis terms, such as PEPTIDE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS or NUCLEIC ACID CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS.
CSP

Used for the chemical preparation of molecules in vitro. For the formation of chemical substances in organisms, living cells, or subcellular fractions, “biosynthesis” is used.
MSH

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neostigmin

A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
MSH

anticholinesterase used in symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis, prevention and treatment of postoperative stasis of the gastrointestinal tract or urinary bladder, and as an antidote for neuromuscular blocking agents after surgery.
CSP

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hydrops fetalis

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
MSH

A condition characterized by fluid accumulation in two or more anatomic compartments in the fetus. Causes include Rh incompatibility, congenital heart defects, and chromosomal abnormalities.
NCI

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oktanoly

Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
MSH

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záření – látky ochranné

Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
MSH

drugs used to protect against ionizing or other forms of radiation.
CSP

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Chiariho-Frommelův syndrom

A POSTPARTUM condition consists of persistent lactation (GALACTORRHEA) and AMENORRHEA in patients not BREAST FEEDING.
MSH

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nervový systém

The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

entire nerve apparatus; in higher animals it is composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses.
CSP

The organized network of nerve tissue in the body. It includes the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system (nerves that extend from the spinal cord to the rest of the body), and other nerve tissue.
NCI

The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses.
NCI

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hydroxyprogesterony

Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
MSH

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alkeny

Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
MSH

unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene.
CSP

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radioisotopy

Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

isotopes that decay and emit radiation; either naturally occurring elements or are produced by the action of neutrons, protons, deuterons, or alpha particles; index with a specific element when appropriate, e.g., C14 index with CARBON and RADIONUCLIDE.
CSP

a chemical element that has been made radioactive
CHV

An unstable form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable. Radioisotopes may occur in nature or be made in a laboratory. In medicine, they are used in imaging tests and in treatment.
NCI

A version of a chemical element that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation during its decay to a stable form. (online dictionary)
NCI

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dítě nadané

A child or adolescent who, when compared to others of the same age or experience, exhibits capability of high performance in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, possesses an unusual capacity for leadership or excels in specific academic fields. (From PL 100-297, Sec. 4103, Definitions)
MSH

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neuroefektorové spoje

The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.
MSH

junction between a neuron and the effector organ it innervates.
CSP

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hypergamaglobulinémie

An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
MSH

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alopecia areata

Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
MSH

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Rana temporaria

A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
MSH

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chlorečnany

Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
MSH

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neuropeptid Y

A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
MSH

36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons; has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity.
CSP

Encoded by single copy human NPY Gene (NPY Family), 97-aa 11-kDa (precursor) secreted Neuropeptide Y is a 36-aa peptide neuromodulator with sequence homology to peptide YY and PNP. One of the most abundant widespread peptides in the nervous system and found in some adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, NPY is one of the most highly conserved peptides known; only 3 amino acid differences exist between human and shark. Implicated in control of feeding, energy balance, and secretion of GNRH, NPY may also regulate angiogenesis. NPY regulates proliferation of multipotent postnatal neuronal precursor or basal cells by PKC-dependent rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases (via NPY Y1 receptor subtype). (NCI)
NCI

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hypertelorismus

Abnormal increase in the interorbital distance due to overdevelopment of the lesser wings of the sphenoid.
MSH

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Alternaria

A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
MSH

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Raynaudova nemoc

intermittent attacks of ischemia in the fingers, toes, ears, or nose, accompanied by pain, pallor, and prickling; phenomenon applies to secondary symptoms, disease when cause is unknown.
CSP

Raynaud`s disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. People with this disorder have attacks that cause the blood vessels to narrow. When this happens, blood can`t get to the surface of the skin and the affected areas turn white and blue. When the blood flow returns, the skin turns red and throbs or tingles. In severe cases, loss of blood flow can cause sores or tissue death. Cold weather and stress can trigger attacks. Often the cause of Raynaud`s is not known. People in colder climates are more likely to develop Raynaud`s than people in warmer areas.

Treatment for Raynaud`s may include drugs to keep the blood vessels open. There are also simple things you can do yourself, such as

  • Soaking hands in warm water at the first sign of an attack
  • Keeping your hands and feet warm in cold weather

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

blood vessel disease that causes exaggerated responses to cold and stress with poor blood circulation
CHV

An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
MSH

An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by ischemic attacks in the fingers, toes, ears, or nose, associated with pain and pallor. The attacks occur during exposure to cold temperatures or stress.
NCI

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chlortrianisen

A powerful synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen.
MSH

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New Caledonia

A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
MSH

A country in the Pacific, comprised of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Pacific, comprised of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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HIPOGLIZEMIA

A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
MSH

syndrome of abnormally low blood glucose level; clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies; severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the central nervous system resulting in hunger, sweating, paresthesia, impaired mental function, seizures, coma, and even death.
CSP

Abnormally low blood sugar.
NCI

Did you know you have sugar in your blood? Your body needs glucose, a form of sugar, to have enough energy. After you eat, your blood absorbs glucose. If you eat more sugar than your body needs, your muscles and liver store the extra. When your blood sugar begins to fall, a hormone tells your liver to release glucose. In most people, this raises blood sugar. If it doesn`t, you have hypoglycemia, and your blood sugar can be dangerously low. Signs include

  • Hunger
  • Shakiness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Feeling anxious or weak

Hypoglycemia is usually a side effect of diabetes medicines. Eating or drinking something with carbohydrates can help. If it happens often, your health care provider may need to change your treatment plan.

You can also have low blood sugar without having diabetes. In that case, your health care provider will try to find the cause using laboratory tests to measure blood glucose, insulin and other chemicals that play a part in the body`s use of energy.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate a low concentration of glucose in the blood.
NCI

Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood.
NCI

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Ambystoma

A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
MSH

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receptory buněčného povrchu

Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
MSH

cell surface proteins that bind signaling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell; not all cell surface receptors are tree`d under this term.
CSP

A receptor protein that is localized to the plasma membrane and may have exposure to the extracellular milieu.
NCI

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choleny

Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.
MSH

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kyselina niflumová

An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
MSH

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hypotermie indukovaná

Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
MSH

abnormally low body temperature intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means.
CSP

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