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torakoplastika

Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgical removal of a rib to gain access during surgery or to collapse the chest wall and a diseased lung.
NCI

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histony

Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
MSH

small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages; classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
CSP

A type of protein found in chromosomes. Histones bind to DNA, help give chromosomes their shape, and help control the activity of genes.
NCI

Major protein component of chromatin. Highly conserved basic proteins, originally classified into classes based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each protein. The various classes are now termed H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. In chromatin, they are found in an octamer, containing two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, complexed with DNA in nucleosomes. The histones in the octamer complex are also known as the core histones. The H1 class of histones, termed the linker histones, is loosely associated with the nucleosome.
NCI

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preleukémie

Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.
MSH

Your bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. This leaves less room for healthy cells, which can lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding.

Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are sometimes found during a routine blood test. If you have symptoms, they may include

  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or feeling tired
  • Skin that is paler than usual
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Pinpoint spots under the skin caused by bleeding
  • Fever or frequent infections

Myelodysplastic syndromes are rare. People at higher risk are over 60, have had chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or have been exposed to certain chemicals. Treatment options include transfusions, drug therapy, chemotherapy, and blood or bone marrow stem cell transplants.

NIH National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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cykloheximid

Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
MSH

antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus; it inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells by blocking translation of messenger RNA on the ribosome.
CSP

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myosin – lehké řetězce

The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered “calmodulin-like” proteins.
MSH

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buňky předkládající antigen

heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor; traditional antigen presenting cells include macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, and B-lymphocytes; follicular dendritic cells are also considered to be antigen presenting cells by some.
CSP

A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
MSH

A type of immune cell that boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system. An antigen-presenting cell is a type of phagocyte.
NCI

A cell that enables a T-lymphocyte to recognize an antigen by engulfing the antigen, breaking down the antigen into smaller fragments which bind to MHC molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cell. The T-lymphocyte can now recognize and bind with the MHC-linked antigen.
NCI

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1-methyl-4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin

A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
MSH

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, a toxic contaminant found in the abused drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) which causes Parkinsonlike symptoms.
CSP

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HLA-D antigeny

Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
MSH

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primachin

An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
MSH

aminoquinolone compound used as an antimalarial against the extraerythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax and P ovale and the gametocytes of P falciparum.
CSP

A synthetic, 8-aminoquinoline derivative with antimalarial properties. Although its mechanism of action is unclear, primaquine bind to and alter the properties of protozoal DNA. This agent eliminates tissue (exo-erythrocytic) malarial infection, preventing the development of the erythrocytic forms of the parasite which are responsible for relapses in Plasmodium vivax and ovale malaria. Primaquine is active against late hepatic stages (hypnozoites, schizonts). (NCI04)
NCI

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cystathionin-gama-lyasa

A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
MSH

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N-ras Genes

Human Oncogene N-RAS is a mutated variant of NRAS Gene (RAS Family), which encodes p21 N-Ras Protein, a monomeric GTPase involved in transmembrane signal transduction that alternates between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. RAS is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein. Mitogen-stimulated RAS stabilizes MYC protein and enhances MYC accumulation by the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway, which appears to inhibit the proteasome-dependent degradation of MYC. Implicated in a variety of human tumors, specific amino acid mutations activate c-RAS and transform cells. Oncogene NRAS disrupts normal cell function.
NCI

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antimitotické látky

agent that inhibits or prevents mitosis.
CSP

A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). They are used to treat cancer.
NCI

An agent that inhibits tumor growth by interfering with mitotic processes or the assembly of the mitotic machinery.
NCI

Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
MSH

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20-Methylcholanthrene

A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that consists of five fused rings with carcinogenic activity. 20-Methylcholanthrene is often used in experimental cancer studies.
NCI

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porod doma

Childbirth taking place in the home.
MSH

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fenofibrát

A synthetic phenoxy-isobutyric acid derivate and prodrug with antihyperlipidemic activity. Fenofibrate is hydrolyzed in vivo to its active metabolite fenofibric acid that binds to and activates perioxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), resulting in the activation of lipoprotein lipase and reduction of the production of apoprotein C-III, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity. Increased lipolysis and a fall in plasma triglycerides, in turn, leads to the modification of the small, dense low density lipoporotein (LDL) particles into larger particles that are catabolized more rapidly due to a greater affinity for cholesterol receptors. In addition, activation of PPARalpha also increases the synthesis of apoproteins A-I, A-II, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Overall, fenofibrate reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoprotein (VLDL) while increasing HDL cholesterol. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459750&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459750&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C29047″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
MSH

A drug used to treat high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Fenofibrate is being studied in the treatment of advanced cancers in young patients and in the treatment of other conditions. It is a type of antilipidemic agent.
NCI

A synthetic phenoxy-isobutyric acid derivate and prodrug with antihyperlipidemic activity. Fenofibrate is hydrolyzed in vivo to its active metabolite fenofibric acid that binds to and activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), resulting in the activation of lipoprotein lipase and reduction of the production of apoprotein C-III, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity. Increased lipolysis and a fall in plasma triglycerides, in turn, leads to the modification of the small, dense low density lipoporotein (LDL) particles into larger particles that are catabolized more rapidly due to a greater affinity for cholesterol receptors. In addition, activation of PPARalpha also increases the synthesis of apoproteins A-I, A-II, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Overall, fenofibrate reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoprotein (VLDL) while increasing HDL cholesterol.
NCI

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cytidindifosfátdiglyceridy

The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
MSH

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naloxon

A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
MSH

specific opiate antagonist with no agonist activity, a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
CSP

A thebaine derivate with competitive opioid antagonistic properties. Naloxone reverses the effects of opioid analgesics by binding to the opioid receptors in the CNS, and inhibiting the typical actions of opioid analgesics, including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence. Naloxone binds to mu-opioid receptors with a high affinity, and a lesser degree to kappa- and gamma-opioid receptors in the CNS.
NCI

A substance that is being studied as a treatment for constipation caused by narcotic medications. It belongs to the family of drugs called narcotic antagonists.
NCI

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antitusika

Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
MSH

Any substance that is capable of relieving or suppressing coughing.
NCI

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kyselina 5,8,11,14-eikosatetraynová

A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
MSH

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nemocnice – řízení

Management of the internal organization of the hospital.
NCI

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progesteron

The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
MSH

principal progestational hormone, secreted by the corpus luteum, placenta, and in minute amounts by the adrenal cortex; it prepares the uterus for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum; it acts on the mammary glands and on the brain; it serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of sex steroids and adrenal corticosteroids.
CSP

A type of hormone made by the body that plays a role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Progesterone can also be made in the laboratory. It may be used as a type of birth control and to treat menstrual disorders, infertility, symptoms of menopause, and other conditions.
NCI

a type of female sex hormone
CHV

A synthetic form of the endogenous hormone progesterone. Progesterone binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in dissociation of heat shock proteins, receptor phosphorylation, and transcription activation through direct or indirect interaction with transcription factors. This agent exerts inhibitory effects on estrogens by decreasing the number of estrogen receptors and increasing its metabolism to inactive metabolites. Progesterone induces secretory changes in the endometrium, decreases uterine contractility during pregnancy, and maintains pregnancy. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39059&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39059&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C777″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

Produced in the corpus luteum and by the placenta, as an antagonist of estrogens. Promotes proliferation of uterine mucosa and the implantation of the blastocyst, prevents further follicular development. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

A synthetic form of the endogenous hormone progesterone. Progesterone binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in dissociation of heat shock proteins, receptor phosphorylation, and transcription activation through direct or indirect interaction with transcription factors. This agent exerts inhibitory effects on estrogens by decreasing the number of estrogen receptors and increasing its metabolism to inactive metabolites. Progesterone induces secretory changes in the endometrium, decreases uterine contractility during pregnancy, and maintains pregnancy. (NCI04)
NCI

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Cytomegalovirus – infekce

Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
MSH

A herpesvirus infection caused by Cytomegalovirus. Healthy individuals generally do not produce symptoms. However, the infection may be life-threatening in affected immunocompromised patients. The virus may cause retinitis, esophagitis, gastritis, and colitis. Morphologically, it is characterized by the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies.
NCI

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus found around the world. It is related to the viruses that cause chickenpox and infectious mononucleosis (mono). Between 50 percent and 80 percent of adults in the United States have had a CMV infection by age 40. Once CMV is in a person`s body, it stays there for life.

Most people with CMV don`t get sick. But infection with the virus can be very serious in babies and people with weak immune systems. If a woman gets CMV when she is pregnant, she can pass it on to her baby. CMV does not harm most babies. But some develop lifelong disabilities.

CMV is spread through close contact with body fluids. You should use good hygiene, including proper hand washing, to avoid catching or spreading the virus. Most people with CMV don`t require treatment. If you have a weakened immune system, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


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nosní provokační testy

Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
MSH

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aortopulmonální septum – defekty

A developmental abnormality in which the spiral (aortopulmonary) septum failed to completely divide the TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into ASCENDING AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. This abnormal communication between the two major vessels usually lies above their respective valves (AORTIC VALVE; PULMONARY VALVE).
MSH

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břišní svaly

Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

Muscle (organ) which is a part of the abdomen. Examples: external oblique, rectus abdominis.
FMA

Any of the muscles of the abdomen that comprise the abdominal wall; these muscles include the rectus abdominis, the external and internal oblique muscles, the transversus abdominis, and the quadratus abdominis.
NCI

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nemocnice pro osteopatie

Hospitals providing care utilizing the generally accepted medical and surgical methods but with emphasis on the osteopathic system of therapy.
MSH

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pronasa

A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
MSH

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dimethylaminonaftalensulfonylové sloučeniny

Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
MSH

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nebramycin

A complex of antibiotic substances produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.
MSH

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apendix

A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
MSH

Organ with organ cavity which is continuous proximally with the cecum and distally terminates in the tip of the appendix. Examples: There is only one appendix.
UWDA

A small, fingerlike pouch that sticks out from the cecum (the first part of the large intestine near the end of the small intestine).
NCI

Organ with organ cavity which is continuous proximally with the cecum and distally terminates in the tip of the appendix. Examples: There is only one appendix.
FMA

Small tissue projection existing as a cecal diverticulum with a questionable history of vestigial versus specialized organ. (NCI)
NCI

Small tissue projection existing as a cecal diverticulum with a questionable history of vestigial versus specialized organ.
NCI

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