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hydrogenace

Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
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cholesterol-7-alfa-hydroxylasa

A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
MSH

Encoded by human CYP7A1 Gene (Cytochrome P450 Family), 504-aa 58-kDa Cytochrome P450 7A1 is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound P450 heme-thiolate monooxygenase in the liver that catalyzes the first (rate-limiting) reaction in the cholesterol catabolic pathway: cholesterol conversion to bile acids, the major site of regulation of bile acid synthesis and the primary mechanism for removal of cholesterol from the body. P450 enzymes catalyze reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (NCI)
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Administrative Districts

A location defined for administrative purposes.
NCI

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nervová vlákna myelinizovaná

A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
MSH

Axons of neurons encased in a lipoproteinaceous material called myelin. (MeSH)
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pulz

The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
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oxygenasy se smíšenou funkcí

Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
MSH

These enzymes use molecular oxygen catalyze the donation of one oxygen atom to a substrate specific site, while the other atom is donated to the generation of water. The enzyme uses molecular oxygen as the oxygen source instead of water, and is critical for several endocrine function operations.
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choriokarcinom

A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
MSH

malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors, contains sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts; characterized by the large amounts of chorionic gonadotropin produced; tissue origins can be placental (fetal) or non-placental.
CSP

A malignant, fast-growing tumor that develops from trophoblastic cells (cells that help an embryo attach to the uterus and help form the placenta). Almost all choriocarcinomas form in the uterus after fertilization of an egg by a sperm, but a small number form in a testis or an ovary. Choriocarcinomas spread through the blood to other organs, especially the lungs. They are a type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
NCI

An aggressive malignant tumor arising from trophoblastic cells. The vast majority of cases arise in the uterus and represent gestational choriocarcinomas that derive from placental trophoblastic cells. Approximately half of the cases develop from a complete hydatidiform mole. A minority of cases arise in the testis or the ovaries. There is often marked elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood. Choriocarcinomas disseminate rapidly through the hematogenous route; the lungs are most frequently affected.
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receptory adrenergní alfa – agonisté

Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
MSH

Natural or synthetic Alpha-adrenergic Agonists selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, mimicking the actions of natural sympathomimetic neurotransmitters (norepinephrine and related substances). Alpha-adrenergic Agonists can initiate physiological responses such as vasoconstriction, pupil dilation, and contraction of pilomotor muscles. (NCI04)
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neuritida autoimunitní experimentální

An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)
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pyelocystitida

Inflammation of the KIDNEY PELVIS and the URINARY BLADDER.
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hyperkapnie

A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
MSH

excess carbon dioxide in the blood.
CSP

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chromatografie gelová

Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
MSH

column chromatography that separates compounds on the basis of molecular size by using a molecular sieve, usually a zeolite; molecules larger than the largest pore size are excluded from the column.
CSP

Gel permeation or sieve chromatography that is performed on porous gels that separate solutes on the basis of size. Smaller solutes are included within the particles of the gel matrix more frequently than larger solutes, thus affecting elution rates.
NCI

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aferentní nervové dráhy

Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
MSH

Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center. (MeSH)
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neuronové ceroidlipofuscinózy

inherited degenerative disease characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions which stain positively for ceroid and lipofuscin.
CSP

A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.
MSH

A group of mostly autosomal recessive inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of lipofuscin in the neuronal cells and in other tissues including liver, spleen, kidneys, and myocardium. Signs and symptoms include motor disturbances and cognitive decline.
NCI

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pyridoxaminfosfátoxidasa

An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC 1.4.3.5.
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hyperplazie

An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
MSH

abnormal multiplication of otherwise normal cells, leading to tissue enlargement.
CSP

An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
NCI

An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or a tissue with consequent enlargement.
NCI

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chromozómy lidské, 21-22 a Y

The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
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aglutininy

Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
MSH

antibody or other substance that reacts with surface antigens of particles, such as red cells and bacteria, to agglutinate them.
CSP

A substance that makes particles (such as bacteria or cells) stick together to form a clump or a mass.
NCI

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neutrofily

granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
CSP

A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granular leukocytes. A granular leukocyte is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
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pyruvátdehydrogenasový komplex

A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
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kyselina chlorná

An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
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Chrysosporium

A mitosporic Onygenaceae fungal genus which causes adiaspiromycosis, a pulmonary mycosis of man and rodents. One of its teleomorphs is Ajellomyces.
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dýchací cesty – obstrukce

Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
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nikotinamidmononukleotid

3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5`phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
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kyselina chinová

An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
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hypotalamus – nádory

Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)
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cirkumcize u mužů

Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
MSH

Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the tip of the penis. In the United States, it is often done before a new baby leaves the hospital. There are medical benefits and risks to circumcision. Possible benefits include a lower risk of urinary tract infections, penile cancer and sexually transmitted diseases. The risks include pain and a low risk of bleeding or infection. These risks are higher for older babies, boys and men.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not recommend routine circumcision. Parents need to decide what is best for their sons, based on their religious, cultural and personal preferences.


MEDLINEPLUS

Surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin) of a male; the foreskin is the fold of skin covering the glans of the penis.
NCI

Surgery to remove part or all of the foreskin (loose skin that covers the head of the penis).
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alkohol – otrava

An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
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dusičnany

Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
MSH

A class of ester compounds of nitric acid (HNO3) and alcohols.
NCI

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záření – poranění

Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
MSH

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