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plíce – atelektáza

collapse of all or part of a lung due to bronchial plugging or the chest cavity being opened to atomspheric pressure.
CSP

Failure of the lung to expand (inflate) completely. This may be caused by a blocked airway, a tumor, general anesthesia, pneumonia or other lung infections, lung disease, or long-term bedrest with shallow breathing. Sometimes called a collapsed lung.
NCI

Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
MSH

A disorder characterized by the collapse of part or the entire lung.
NCI

The collapse of part or the entire lung due to airway obstruction, infection, tumor, or general anesthesia.
NCI

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Forssmanův antigen

A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
MSH

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alamethicin

A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

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deoxyribonukleasa BamHI

One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
MSH

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jaterní cirhóza

liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
NCI

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to

  • Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
  • Swelling of the abdomen or legs
  • Extra sensitivity to medicines
  • High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach
  • Kidney failure

About 5 percent of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.

Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by replacement of the liver parenchyma with fibrous tissue and regenerative nodules. It is usually caused by alcoholisms, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Complications include the development of ascites, esophageal varices, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy.
NCI

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chinoliziny

bicylic, 10-membered ring structure with one tertiary nitrogen shared by both rings; found in the rauwolfia and other alkaloids.
CSP

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postoj k smrti

Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.
MSH

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volné radikály

Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
MSH

chemicals whose molecular or ionic structure includes an unpaired (“free”) electron, usually conferring high reactivity; in biological systems, most free radicals contain oxygen (prefer FREE RADICAL OXYGEN).
CSP

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism (chemical changes that take place in a cell). Free radicals can build up in cells and cause damage to other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. This damage may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
NCI

Molecules or atoms with at least one unpaired or `free` electron in the outermost electron shell. Chemically unstable, free radicals stabilize themselves by appropriating an electron from a nearby molecule, thereby damaging that molecule by altering the electron number in its outermost electron shell. By-products of both normal cell processes and environmental toxin exposure, oxygen free-radicals in high concentrations may damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, thereby increasing the risk for various diseases including cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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oktanoly

Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
MSH

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dermatitida léková

Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.
MSH

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loaiáza

A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
MSH

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záření – látky ochranné

Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
MSH

drugs used to protect against ionizing or other forms of radiation.
CSP

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autogenní trénink

Technique based on muscle relaxation during self-hypnotic exercises. It is used in conjunction with psychotherapy.
MSH

method of training to reduce stress and bring the autonomic nervous system under voluntary control.
CSP

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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alkeny

Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
MSH

unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene.
CSP

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deuteroporfyriny

Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
MSH

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Ludwigova angína

Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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radioisotopy

Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

isotopes that decay and emit radiation; either naturally occurring elements or are produced by the action of neutrons, protons, deuterons, or alpha particles; index with a specific element when appropriate, e.g., C14 index with CARBON and RADIONUCLIDE.
CSP

a chemical element that has been made radioactive
CHV

An unstable form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable. Radioisotopes may occur in nature or be made in a laboratory. In medicine, they are used in imaging tests and in treatment.
NCI

A version of a chemical element that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation during its decay to a stable form. (online dictionary)
NCI

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avidin

A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
MSH

biotin-binding protein found in eggs.
CSP

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Fusarium

mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates.
CSP

A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
MSH

A genus of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that is widely distributed in soil and in association with plants.
NCI

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alopecia areata

Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
MSH

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heroin

A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

narcotic analgesic drug prepared from morphine, now prohibited in the United States even for medicinal uses because of the danger of addiction.
CSP

Heroin is a drug made from morphine, a natural substance in the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder. Heroin can be injected, smoked or snorted. Heroin abuse is a serious problem in the United States. Major health problems from heroin include miscarriages, heart infections and death from overdose. People who inject the drug also risk infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.

Regular use of heroin can lead to tolerance. This means users need more and more drug to have the same effect. At higher doses over time, the body becomes dependent on heroin. If dependent users stop heroin, they have withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, diarrhea, vomiting and cold flashes.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


MEDLINEPLUS

A substance made from morphine. Heroin is very addictive and it is illegal to use or sell it in the United States. It is a type of opiate.
NCI

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luteom

An ovarian neoplasm composed of LUTEAL CELLS derived from luteinized GRANULOSA CELLS and THECA CELLS. Luteomas respond to GONADOTROPINS, and vary in their hormone production (PROGESTERONE; ESTROGENS; or ANDROGENS). During PREGNANCY, a transient type of luteoma may develop due to an exaggerated LUTEINIZATION of the OVARY.
MSH

A benign ovarian stromal tumor in which more than 90% of the tumor cells resemble steroid hormone-secreting cells. Crystals of Reinke are not present. It occurs in post-menopausal women and it is usually associated with estrogenic effects.
NCI

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Rana temporaria

A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
MSH

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Azospirillum brasilense

A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
MSH

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galaktosylceramidasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC 3.2.1.46.
MSH

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galium – isotopy

Stable gallium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gallium, but differ in atomic weight. Ga-71 is a stable gallium isotope.
MSH

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hliník – silikáty

Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
MSH

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diatrizoate sodium

An iodinated radiopaque X-ray contrast medium. Diatrizoate sodium blocks X-rays, thereby allowing body structures containing iodine to be delineated in contrast to those structures that do not contain iodine and allowing visualization of these areas. This contrast agent is used as a diagnostic aid in angiography, urography and radiography. (NCI05)
NCI

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lymfom non-Hodgkinův

Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin`s disease.
MSH

characterized by malignant lymphomas; clinically similar to Hodgkin`s disease, except that the lymphomas seen in this disease are initially more widespread; most common manifestation is painless enlargement of one or more peripheral lymph nodes.
CSP

Distinct from Hodgkin lymphoma both morphologically and biologically, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is characterized by the absence of Reed-Sternberg cells, can occur at any age, and usually presents as a localized or generalized lymphadenopathy associated with fever and weight loss. The clinical course varies according to the morphologic type. NHL is clinically classified as indolent, aggressive, or having a variable clinical course. NHL can be of B-or T-/NK-cell lineage.
NCI

Any of a large group of cancers of lymphocytes (white blood cells). NHLs can occur at any age and are often marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of NHL. These types can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types, and they can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells. B-cell NHLs include Burkitt lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphomas that occur after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell NHLs. Prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and type of disease.
NCI

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