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kolon – nemoci

Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the colon.
CSP

Your colon, also known as the large intestine, is part of your digestive system. It`s a long, hollow tube at the end of your digestive tract where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon`s ability to work properly. Some of these include

Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its severity. Treatment may involve diet, medicines and in some cases, surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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heterocyklické sloučeniny monocyklické

A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
MSH

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Podophyllum

A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.
MSH

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svaly – rigidita

Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
MSH

motor impairment whereby the hypertonic state is charcterized by bidirectional increased resistance to passive movement.
CSP

Stiffness or inflexibility.
NCI

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technecium

The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
MSH

first artificially produced element; technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43; all technetium isotopes are radioactive; technetium 99m has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent.
CSP

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cysta choledochu, typ I

Characterized by the fusiform or saccular dilatation of the COMMON BILE DUCT.
MSH

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hexylresorcinol

A substituted dihydroxybenzene that is used topically as an antiseptic for the treatment of minor skin infections.
MSH

A substituted phenol with bactericidal, antihelminthic and potential antineoplastic activities. Hexylresorcinol is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and skin wound cleansers. Hexylresorcinol may also inhibit oxidative DNA damage by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which facilitate scavenging reactive oxygen molecules by glutathione (GSH).
NCI

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poly G

A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
MSH

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Mycobacterium avium

bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds; in pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease; the organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle; it should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
CSP

A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Mycobacterium avium.
NCI

A species of aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Actinobacteria. This species is acid fast, catalase positive, niacin, peroxidase, nitrate reductase, and urease negative, and may be susceptible to pnitrobenzoate, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, rifampin, and streptomycin. M. avium is found in soil and dust particles and can cause infection when inhaled or ingested, especially causing disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients.
NCI

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vnímání teploty

The series of events required for an organism to receive a temperature stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Thermoception in larger animals is mainly done in the skin; mammals have at least two types of sensor, for detecting heat (temperatures above body temperature) and cold (temperatures below body temperature). [GOC:ai, http://www.wikipedia.org/Thermoception]
GO

sensation of temperature.
CSP

The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
MSH

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kompetitivní chování

The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
MSH

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histamin H1 – antagonisté

Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
MSH

A type of drug that blocks the action of histamines, which can cause fever, itching, sneezing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. Antihistamines are used to prevent fevers in patients receiving blood transfusions and to treat allergies, coughs, and colds.
NCI

Any agent that binds to the histamine-1 (H-1) receptor, thereby antagonizing histamine mediated allergic reactions, such as bronchoconstriction, vasodilation and up-regulated capillary permeability.
NCI

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Polygonum

A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).
MSH

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myelodysplastické syndromy

Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
MSH

A group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells.
NCI

A disorder characterized by insufficiently healthy hematapoietic cell production by the bone marrow.
NCI

A clonal hematopoietic disorder characterized by dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis in one or more of the hematopoietic cell lines. The dysplasia may be accompanied by an increase in myeloblasts, but the number is less than 20%, which, according to the WHO guidelines, is the requisite threshold for the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. It may occur de novo or as a result of exposure to alkylating agents and/or radiotherapy. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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umírající

Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O`Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)
MSH

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membranolytický komplex

A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the “membrane attack complex” or MAC.
MSH

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histony

Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
MSH

small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages; classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
CSP

A type of protein found in chromosomes. Histones bind to DNA, help give chromosomes their shape, and help control the activity of genes.
NCI

Major protein component of chromatin. Highly conserved basic proteins, originally classified into classes based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each protein. The various classes are now termed H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. In chromatin, they are found in an octamer, containing two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, complexed with DNA in nucleosomes. The histones in the octamer complex are also known as the core histones. The H1 class of histones, termed the linker histones, is loosely associated with the nucleosome.
NCI

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polyribonukleotidy

A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
MSH

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myosin – lehké řetězce

The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered “calmodulin-like” proteins.
MSH

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tetragastrin

L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
MSH

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početí

In biology, the beginning of pregnancy, marked by fertilization of an egg by a sperm.
NCI

Fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon resulting in formation of a viable zygote.
NCI

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HLA-D antigeny

Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
MSH

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porfiromycin

Toxic antibiotic of the mitomycin group, obtained from MITOMYCIN and also from Streptomyces ardus and other species. It is proposed as an antineoplastic agent, with some antibiotic properties.
MSH

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called anticancer antibiotics.
NCI

An N-methyl derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces ardus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced porfiromycin generates oxygen radicals and alkylates DNA, producing interstrand cross-links and single-strand breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Porfiromycin is preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39610&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39610&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C763″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An N-methyl derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces ardus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced porfiromycin generates oxygen radicals and alkylates DNA, producing interstrand cross-links and single-strand breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Porfiromycin is preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells. (NCI04)
NCI

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N-ras Genes

Human Oncogene N-RAS is a mutated variant of NRAS Gene (RAS Family), which encodes p21 N-Ras Protein, a monomeric GTPase involved in transmembrane signal transduction that alternates between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. RAS is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein. Mitogen-stimulated RAS stabilizes MYC protein and enhances MYC accumulation by the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway, which appears to inhibit the proteasome-dependent degradation of MYC. Implicated in a variety of human tumors, specific amino acid mutations activate c-RAS and transform cells. Oncogene NRAS disrupts normal cell function.
NCI

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thanatoforická dysplazie

A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.
MSH

A severe autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene. It is characterized by multiple skeletal abnormalities, including extremely short limbs. It results in the death of the neonate.
NCI

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buňky tkáně pojivové

A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
MSH

group of cells that includes fibroblasts, cartilage cells, adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
CSP

A group of cells that includes fibroblasts, cartilage cells, adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells. (MeSH)
NCI

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porod doma

Childbirth taking place in the home.
MSH

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postflebitický syndrom

A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.
MSH

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naloxon

A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
MSH

specific opiate antagonist with no agonist activity, a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
CSP

A thebaine derivate with competitive opioid antagonistic properties. Naloxone reverses the effects of opioid analgesics by binding to the opioid receptors in the CNS, and inhibiting the typical actions of opioid analgesics, including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence. Naloxone binds to mu-opioid receptors with a high affinity, and a lesser degree to kappa- and gamma-opioid receptors in the CNS.
NCI

A substance that is being studied as a treatment for constipation caused by narcotic medications. It belongs to the family of drugs called narcotic antagonists.
NCI

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thiacetazon

A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
MSH

A thiosemicarbazone prodrug with antitubercular activity. Although the exact mechanism by which thioacetazone exerts its effect has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent, upon activation by bacterial monooxygenase EtaA, appears to target and inhibit cyclopropane mycolic acid synthases (CMASs), a family of S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent methyl transferases responsible for cyclopropanation of mycolic acid. By inhibiting mycolic acid synthesis, the bacterial cell wall becomes more permeable and less resistant to injury which eventually leads to cell lysis. Mycolic acids, long-chain fatty acids, are essential mycobacterial cell wall components and play a key role in resistance to cell injury and mycobacterial virulence.
NCI

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