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betaxolol

A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.
MSH

A racemic mixture and selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist with antihypertensive and anti-glaucoma activities and devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Betaxolol selectively and competitively binds to and blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac contractility and rate. This leads to a reduction in cardiac output and lowers blood pressure. When applied topically in the eye, this agent reduces aqueous humor secretion and lowers the intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, betaxolol prevents the release of renin, a hormone secreted by the kidneys that causes constriction of blood vessels.
NCI

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socialismus

A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.
MSH

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ještěrky

any of a suborder (Lacertilia) of reptiles distinguished from the snakes by a fused inseparable lower jaw, a single temporal opening, two pairs of well differentiated functional limbs which may be lacking in burrowing forms, external ears, and eyes with movable lids.
CSP

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pasivně-agresivní osobnost

A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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District of Columbia

A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.
MSH

The area in the United States comprised of a 68 square mile area northeast of the Potomac River donated by the state of Maryland. The District of Columbia, also known as D.C., is not a state, nor is it part of any state. It is a “federal district” established by the US Constitution as the seat of government. The district is occupied entirely by the city of Washington. (from SEERS 2004 codeset)
NCI

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čelní kost

The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
MSH

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dyskineze žlučových cest

A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
MSH

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Sodium Iothalamate

The sodium salt form of iothalamate, an organic iodine compound and a radiographic contrast medium. Iothalamate sodium blocks x-rays as they pass through the body, thereby allowing body structures not containing iodine to be visualized. The degree of opacity produced by iothalamate sodium is directly proportional to the total amount of the iodinated contrast agent in the path of the x-rays. The visualization of body structures is dependent upon the distribution and elimination of iothalamate sodium. (NCI05)
NCI

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hluk – percepce

The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
MSH

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pacienti – identifikační systémy

Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.
MSH

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transpozibilní elementy DNA

Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
MSH

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fond – zvyšování

Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.
MSH

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biologická dostupnost

The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
MSH

The rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at the site of action. For drug products that are not intended to be absorbed into the bloodstream, bioavailability may be assessed by measurements intended to reflect the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety becomes available at the site of action (21CFR320.1).
NCI

the amount of drug that reaches the blood after it has been administered
CHV

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Somálsko

Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy`s former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
MSH

A country in Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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plíce – mykózy

Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
MSH

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posudkové řízení

An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
MSH

The process by which original articles and grants written by researchers are evaluated for technical and scientific quality and correctness by other experts in the same field.
NCI

A scholarly process that subjects an author`s work or ideas to the scrutiny of one or more others who are experts in the field. These referees each return an evaluation of the work, including suggestions for improvement. Evaluations usually include an explicit recommendation of what to do with the manuscript or proposal. A chief rationale for peer review is that rarely is just one person, or one closely working group, able to spot every mistake or weakness in a complicated piece of work. This is not necessarily because these deficiencies represent needles in a haystack, but because in a new and creative and perhaps eclectic intellectual product, any one of these opportunities for improvement may stand out only to someone with a particular expertise and/or history of experience. Therefore showing a work to various others increases the probability that the weakness will be identified and fixed.
NCI

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proteiny vážící DNA

Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
MSH

diverse group of viral and genetic regulatory proteins which bind in a sequence-specific manner to DNA, and share common structural motifs such as the “zinc-finger,” “helix-turn-helix,” and “leucine zipper.”
CSP

Proteins that non-covalently interact with deoxyribonucleic acid as a result of intermolecular physical forces and spatial complementarity. Many genetic regulatory DNA binding proteins bind to double- or single-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner and share common structural motifs such as the zinc-finger, helix-turn-helix, and leucine zipper.
NCI

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Gaffkya anaerobia

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Anaerococcus tetradius.
NCI

A species of anaerobic, Gram positive, cocci shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Firmicutes. This bacteria is urease positive, indole and coagulase negative, ferments glucose and mannose but does not produces acid from raffinose. A. tetradius is a commensal organism of the mouth, skin, gastrointestinal and urinary tract and is considered an opportunistic pathogens in cases of immunosuppression or trauma.
NCI

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bioformation

Used for the anabolic formation of chemical substances in organisms, in living cells, or by subcellular fractions.
MSH

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prostor – percepce

The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
MSH

awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
CSP

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lymfangiektázie střevní

Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.
MSH

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penis – nemoci

Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the penis.
CSP

Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man`s sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include

  • Erectile dysfunction – inability to get or keep an erection
  • Priapism – a painful erection that does not go away
  • Peyronie`s disease – bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump called a plaque
  • Balanitis – inflammation of the skin covering the head of the penis, most often in men and boys who have not been circumcised
  • Penile cancer – a rare form of cancer, highly curable when caught early


MEDLINEPLUS

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dvojitá slepá metoda

A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
MSH

A clinical trial in which the medical staff, the patient, and the people who analyze the results do not know the specific type of treatment the patient receives until after the clinical trial is over.
NCI

A study in which neither the subject nor the investigator nor the research team interacting with the subject or data during the trial knows what treatment a subject is receiving. (CDISC glossary)
NCI

A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment. (MSH2001)
NCI

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Gambie

A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
MSH

A country in Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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hemoglobinurická horečka

A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.
MSH

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spektroskopie Mossbauerova

A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.
MSH

measurement and analysis in crystalline solids of small shifts in nuclear energy levels that correspond to gamma ray emission and resonant reabsorption frequencies; energy is added to the system through the Doppler effect; used especially in study of tin and iron compounds.
CSP

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lymfotoxin-alfa

soluble protein released by lymphocytes activated by antigens or T cell mitogens that is cytotoxic to other cells; involved in allergies and chronic inflammatory diseases.
CSP

A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
MSH

Human tumor necrosis factor-beta protein (205 aa, 22 kDa precursor) is encoded by the human lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) gene. This soluble glycoprotein is released by antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes and is a cytotoxic to other cells. It is involved in allergies and chronic inflammatory diseases.
NCI

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peptický vřed – hemoragie

Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
MSH

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léky – antagonismus

Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.
MSH

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gangréna

Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
MSH

death and decay of body tissue, often occurring in a limb, caused by insufficient blood supply and usually following injury or disease.
CSP

Death of tissue, usually in considerable mass and generally associated with loss of vascular (nutritive) supply and followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction.
NCI

Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply
CHV

Gangrene is the death of tissues in your body. It happens when a part of your body loses its blood supply. Gangrene can happen on the surface of the body, such as on the skin, or inside the body, in muscles or organs. Causes include:

Skin symptoms may include a blue or black color, pain, numbness, and sores that produce a foul-smelling discharge. If the gangrene is internal, you may run a fever, feel unwell, and the area may be swollen and painful.

Treatment includes surgery, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy. In severe cases an amputation may be necessary.


MEDLINEPLUS

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