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fenobarbital

A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
MSH

barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat seizures and as a sedative. It is being studied in the treatment of diarrhea and for its ability to increase the antitumor effect of other therapies. It belongs to the family of drugs called barbiturates.
NCI

a drug used for epilepsy and anxiety
CHV

A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42405&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42405&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C739″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization.
NCI

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cyproheptadin

A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.
MSH

serotonin antagonist and histamine H1 blocker used as an antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and to treat the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat asthma, allergies, and colds, and to relieve itching caused by certain skin disorders. It has also been used to stimulate appetite and weight gain, and is being studied in the treatment of weight loss caused by cancer and its treatment. Cyproheptadine belongs to the family of drugs called antihistamines.
NCI

The hydrochloride salt of a synthetic methyl-piperidine derivative with antihistaminic and anti-serotoninergic properties. Cyproheptadine competes with free histamine (HA) for binding at HA-receptor sites, thereby competitively antagonizing histamine stimulation of HA-receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, large blood vessels, and bronchial smooth muscle. This agent also competes with free serotonin for binding at serotonin receptor sites. Cyproheptadine exhibits anticholinergic and sedative properties and has been shown to stimulate appetite and weight gain. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=315774&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=315774&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C28949″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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makrostomie

Greatly exaggerated width of the mouth, resulting from failure of union of the maxillary and mandibular processes, with extension of the oral orifice toward the ear. The defect may be unilateral or bilateral. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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antigeny virové nádorové

Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
MSH

Proteins encoded by the genomes of specific DNA tumor viruses that are associated with the neoplastic transformation of infected cells. T-antigens stimulate the production of antibodies and are immunogenic.
NCI

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gastroenteritida přenosná prasat

A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
MSH

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nádory žaludku

Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
MSH

new abnormal gastric tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the stomach.
NCI

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fenylthiazolylthiomočovina

A dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor.
MSH

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cystosarcoma phyllodes

A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
MSH

A type of tumor found in breast or prostate tissue. It is often large and bulky and grows quickly. It may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer) and may spread to other parts of the body.
NCI

A benign, borderline, or malignant fibroepithelial neoplasm arising from the breast and rarely the prostate gland. It may recur following resection. The recurrence rates are higher for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. In borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors metastases to distant anatomic sites can occur. The incidence of metastases is higher in malignant phyllodes tumors.
NCI

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MALARIA

A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
MSH

protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae) and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles; malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands; characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high fever, sweating, shaking chills, and anemia; malaria in animals is caused by other species of plasmodia.
CSP

Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. Infected mosquitoes spread it. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the United States. The disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. If you travel to these countries, you are at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert.

Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea and jaundice. The disease can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with medicines. The type of medicine depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected.

Malaria can be prevented. When traveling to malaria-prone regions

  • See your doctor for medicines that protect you
  • Wear insect repellent with DEET
  • Cover up
  • Sleep under mosquito netting

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

A protozoan infection caused by the genus Plasmodium. There are four species of Plasmodium that can infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, ovale, and malariae. It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Signs and symptoms include paroxysmal high fever, sweating, chills, and anemia.
NCI

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asociální osobnost

A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
MSH

personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others through aggressive, antisocial behavior, without remorse or loyalty to anyone.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that is manifested in childhood or early adolescence. (adapted from DSM-IV)
NCI

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geny – ztráta

A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
MSH

genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity.
CSP

The loss of all or a part of a gene. There may also be a change in the RNA and protein made from that gene. Certain gene deletions are found in cancer and in other genetic diseases and abnormalities.
NCI

Any deletion mutation that occurs within a gene, including the 5` and 3` untranslated regions of the gene.
NCI

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Streptomycin Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of streptomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus with antibacterial property. Streptomycin sulfate binds to the S12 protein of the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, thereby inhibiting peptide elongation and protein synthesis, consequently leading to bacterial cell death.
NCI

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fonoforéza

Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.
MSH

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keratin-18

A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
MSH

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mléčné žlázy zvířat

MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
MSH

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aorta – ruptura

The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.
MSH

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generalizace (psychologie)

The phenomenon of an organism`s responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
MSH

The process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances; reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
NCI

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studenti stomatologie

Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
MSH

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fosfoglukomutasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.
MSH

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dakryocystitida

Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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mannitol

A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
MSH

six-carbon sugar alcohol formed by reduction of mannose or fructose and widely distributed in plants and fungi.
CSP

A drug used to decrease swelling of the brain and to treat kidney failure. Mannitol can also be used to open the blood-brain barrier, which allows anticancer medicines to enter the brain and treat brain tumors.
NCI

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39493&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39493&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C625″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma.
NCI

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apolipoproteiny B

Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
MSH

structural proteins of chylomicrons, VLDL, and LDL; important in secretion and transport of lipoproteins; binding proteins for LDL receptor pathway.
CSP

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genetická komplementace – testy

A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
MSH

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submitochondriální částice

The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
MSH

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fosforylasokinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
MSH

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GORTASUNA ZATIZKOA EDO OSOA BIKG

lack or significant deficiency of the sense of hearing.
CSP

An inherited or acquired condition characterized by a partial or complete loss of hearing in one or both ears. The level of impairment varies from a mild but important loss of sensitivity to a total loss of hearing.
NCI

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marihuana – abúzus

The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
MSH

excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
CSP

Marijuana is a dry, shredded mix of flowers, stems, seeds and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. People usually smoke it as a cigarette or in a pipe. It is the most commonly abused illegal drug in the United States.

Abusing marijuana can result in problems with memory, learning and social behavior. It can interfere with family, school, work and other activities.

Scientific studies are underway to test the safety and usefulness of cannabis compounds for treating certain medical conditions. Currently, smoking marijuana is not recommended for the treatment of any disease or condition.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


MEDLINEPLUS

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arabinofuranosyladeninmonofosfát

An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
MSH

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zeměpisné pojmy

header term for any geographic location; for D43 grants, and R03 TW grants (Fogarty International Center awards), index specific country when possible.
CSP

All of the continents and every country situated within, the UNITED STATES and each of the constituent states arranged by region, CANADA and each of its provinces, AUSTRALIA and each of its states, the major bodies of water and major islands on both hemispheres, and selected major cities. Although the geographic locations are not printed in INDEX MEDICUS as main headings, in indexing they are significant in epidemiologic studies and historical articles and for locating administrative units in education and the delivery of health care.
MSH

Any demarcated area of the Earth; may be determined by both natural and human boundaries.
NCI

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náhlá smrt kojenců

The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
MSH

sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant, typically occurring between 3 weeks and 5 months of age, most infants dying at night, and not explained by postmortem data.
CSP

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call SIDS “crib death” because many babies who die of SIDS are found in their cribs.

SIDS is the leading cause of death in children between one month and one year old. Most SIDS deaths occur when babies are between two months and four months old. Although health care professionals don`t know what causes SIDS, they do know ways to reduce the risk. These include

  • Placing babies on their backs to sleep, even for short naps – “tummy time” is for when babies are awake and someone is watching
  • Using a firm sleep surface, such as a crib mattress covered with a fitted sheet
  • Keeping soft objects and loose bedding away from sleep area
  • Making sure babies don`t get too hot – keep the room at a comfortable temperature for an adult

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

Unexpected death in infancy which remains unexplained following autopsy, review of the medical history, and investigation of the death circumstances and death scene.
NCI

The sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep. The cause of SIDS is not known.
NCI

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