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výdaje na zdravotnictví

The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
MSH

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betaxolol

A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.
MSH

A racemic mixture and selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist with antihypertensive and anti-glaucoma activities and devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Betaxolol selectively and competitively binds to and blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac contractility and rate. This leads to a reduction in cardiac output and lowers blood pressure. When applied topically in the eye, this agent reduces aqueous humor secretion and lowers the intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, betaxolol prevents the release of renin, a hormone secreted by the kidneys that causes constriction of blood vessels.
NCI

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sourozenci

Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
MSH

one of two or more offspring of either sex from the same mother or father; includes sister, brother, half-sister, half-brother.
CSP

A person`s brother or sister who has the same parents.
NCI

One person who shares a parent or parents with another.


HL7V3.0

A person`s brother or sister.
NCI

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ketony

functional group of an organic compound in which a carbon atom is double-bonded to an oxygen; neither of the other substituents attached to the carbon can be a hydrogen.
CSP

A type of chemical substance used in perfumes, paints, solvents, and found in essential oils (scented liquid taken from plants). Ketones are also made by the body when there is not enough insulin.
NCI

Organic compounds with a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms as the skeleton structure. Acetone is the simplest ketone compound.
NCI

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District of Columbia

A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.
MSH

The area in the United States comprised of a 68 square mile area northeast of the Potomac River donated by the state of Maryland. The District of Columbia, also known as D.C., is not a state, nor is it part of any state. It is a “federal district” established by the US Constitution as the seat of government. The district is occupied entirely by the city of Washington. (from SEERS 2004 codeset)
NCI

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palmitoylkarnitin

A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.
MSH

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oční nemoci

Diseases affecting the eye.
MSH

impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the organ of sight.
CSP

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the eye that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs. (NCI)
NCI

Some eye problems are minor and fleeting. But some lead to a permanent loss of vision. Common eye problems include

  • Cataracts – clouded lenses
  • Glaucoma – damage to the optic nerve from too much pressure in the eye
  • Retinal disorders – problems with the nerve layer at the back of the eye
  • Conjunctivitis – an infection also known as pinkeye

Your best defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and treatment could prevent vision loss. See an eye care professional right away if you have a sudden change in vision or everything looks dim or if you see flashes of light. Other symptoms that need quick attention are pain, double vision, fluid coming from the eye and inflammation.

NIH: National Eye Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the eye that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs.
NCI

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dyskineze žlučových cest

A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
MSH

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stříbro

Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
MSH

white, soft, malleable and ductile metal, symbol Ag, atomic number 47; compounds are extensively used in medicine and metallic silver is employed in surgery, dental prostheses, and the manufacture of instruments.
CSP

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křemelina

A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
MSH

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transpozibilní elementy DNA

Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
MSH

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panická porucha

A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
MSH

specific psychological phenomenon characterized by sudden onset of anxiety (often unrelated to objective events), accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, paresthesia, flushing, and sweating.
CSP

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror for no reason. You may also feel physical symptoms, such as

  • Fast heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Dizziness

Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere and without warning. You may live in fear of another attack and may avoid places where you have had an attack. For some people, fear takes over their lives and they cannot leave their homes.

Panic disorder is more common in women than men. It usually starts when people are young adults. Sometimes it starts when a person is under a lot of stress. Most people get better with treatment. Therapy can show you how to recognize and change your thinking patterns before they lead to panic. Medicines can also help.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health


MEDLINEPLUS

An anxiety disorder characterized by multiple unexpected panic attacks with persistent concern of recurring attacks. Panic disorder may or may not be accompanied by agoraphobia.
NCI

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AURPEGIKO MINA

Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
MSH

Painful sensation in the face.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a sensation of marked discomfort in the face.
NCI

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biologická dostupnost

The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
MSH

The rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at the site of action. For drug products that are not intended to be absorbed into the bloodstream, bioavailability may be assessed by measurements intended to reflect the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety becomes available at the site of action (21CFR320.1).
NCI

the amount of drug that reaches the blood after it has been administered
CHV

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rejnoci

The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
MSH

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Korea

Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
MSH

Description:Realm code for use of Korea


HL7V3.0

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proteiny vážící DNA

Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
MSH

diverse group of viral and genetic regulatory proteins which bind in a sequence-specific manner to DNA, and share common structural motifs such as the “zinc-finger,” “helix-turn-helix,” and “leucine zipper.”
CSP

Proteins that non-covalently interact with deoxyribonucleic acid as a result of intermolecular physical forces and spatial complementarity. Many genetic regulatory DNA binding proteins bind to double- or single-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner and share common structural motifs such as the zinc-finger, helix-turn-helix, and leucine zipper.
NCI

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Paracoccus denitrificans

A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
MSH

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fakulta ošetřovatelská

The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.
MSH

Nurse educators are registered nurses prepared at the graduate or doctoral level who prepare students for nursing practice at a variety of levels, including entry level, continuing education, advanced practice, and specialty practice. Nurse educators work in various settings, including colleges/universities, community colleges, hospitals, nursing homes, private practice, etc.
NCI

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bioformation

Used for the anabolic formation of chemical substances in organisms, in living cells, or by subcellular fractions.
MSH

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spánek

A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
MSH

period of rest for the body and mind during which volition and consciousness are in partial or complete abeyance and bodily functions are partially suspended; a behavioral state marked by a characteristic immobile posture and diminished but readily reversible sensitivity to external stimuli.
CSP

Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a periodic, readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity. Usually accompanied by physical relaxation, the onset of sleep in humans and other mammals is marked by a change in the electrical activity of the brain. [ISBN:0192800981]
GO

A natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended. (WordNet)
NCI

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porodní děj – předčasný nástup

onset of labor before term but after the fetus has become viable, in humans usually sometime between the 20th and 37th week of gestation.
CSP

Ouster of a viable infant before the normal end of gestation, commonly defined as interruption of pregnancy between the twentieth-thirty seventh completed weeks after the onset of the last menstrual cycle.
NCI

A disorder characterized by delivery of a viable infant before the normal end of gestation. Typically, viability is achievable between the twentieth and thirty-seventh week of gestation.
NCI

Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
MSH

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dvojitá slepá metoda

A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
MSH

A clinical trial in which the medical staff, the patient, and the people who analyze the results do not know the specific type of treatment the patient receives until after the clinical trial is over.
NCI

A study in which neither the subject nor the investigator nor the research team interacting with the subject or data during the trial knows what treatment a subject is receiving. (CDISC glossary)
NCI

A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment. (MSH2001)
NCI

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parafilie

Disorders that include recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering of oneself or partners, or children or other nonconsenting partners. (from DSM-IV, 1994)
MSH

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Fasciolidae

A family of flukes of the class Trematoda occurring primarily in the liver of animals and man. There are six genera: Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Fascioloides, Tenuifasciola, Parafasciolopsis, and Protofasciola. The adult form of Fasciolopsis occurs in the intestines of pigs and man.
MSH

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hemoglobinurická horečka

A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.
MSH

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sociální chování

Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
MSH

behavior affecting or in response to other individuals, usually of the same species.
CSP

Behavior that occurs predominantly, or only, in individuals that are part of a group. [PMID:12848939]
GO

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laktoperoxidasa

An enzyme derived from cow`s milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
MSH

nonEC.
CSP

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léky – antagonismus

Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.
MSH

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parestézie

Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
MSH

A disorder characterized by functional disturbances of sensory neurons resulting in abnormal cutaneous sensations of tingling, numbness, pressure, cold, and warmth that are experienced in the absence of a stimulus.
NCI

Abnormal touch sensations, such as burning or prickling, that occur without an outside stimulus.
NCI

Abnormal cutaneous sensations of tingling, numbness, pressure, cold, and warmth that an individual experiences without the presence of a stimulus. It results from functional disturbances of sensory neurons. Causes include peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and nerve damage.
NCI

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