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spirostany

Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
MSH

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peritonitida

INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
MSH

inflammation of the peritoneum, a condition marked by exudations in the peritoneum of serum, fibrin, cells, and pus.
CSP

inflammation of the thin membrane surrounding abdominal cavity, called peritoneum
CHV

Inflammation of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen). Peritonitis can result from infection, injury, or certain diseases. Symptoms may include swelling of the abdomen, severe pain, and weight loss.
NCI

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mléčné žlázy zvířat

MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
MSH

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Chromatiaceae

A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
MSH

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generalizace (psychologie)

The phenomenon of an organism`s responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
MSH

The process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances; reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
NCI

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sprue tropická

A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
MSH

chronic malabsorption syndrome occuring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics; failed intestinal absorption of nutrients results in malnutrition and anemia due to folate deficiency.
CSP

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perylen

A 20-carbon dibenz(de,kl)anthracene that can be viewed as a naphthalene fused to a phenalene or as dinaphthalene. It is used as fluorescent lipid probe in the cytochemistry of membranes and is a polycyclic hydrocarbon pollutant in soil and water. Derivatives may be carcinogenic.
MSH

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mannitol

A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
MSH

six-carbon sugar alcohol formed by reduction of mannose or fructose and widely distributed in plants and fungi.
CSP

A drug used to decrease swelling of the brain and to treat kidney failure. Mannitol can also be used to open the blood-brain barrier, which allows anticancer medicines to enter the brain and treat brain tumors.
NCI

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39493&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39493&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C625″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma.
NCI

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chromozómy – fragilita

Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
MSH

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genetická komplementace – testy

A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
MSH

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synthasa škrobu

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
MSH

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farmakokinetika

Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and drug ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and TOXICOLOGY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. It includes toxicokinetics, the pharmacokinetic mechanism of the toxic effects of a substance. ADME and ADMET are short-hand abbreviations for absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicology.
MSH

distribution and effectiveness of a drug throughout the body as a function of route, schedule, vehicle, chemical isomer, metabolism, and other factors.
CSP

The activity of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body, localized in the tissues, and excreted.
NCI

how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body
CHV

The characteristic movements of drugs within biological systems, as affected by absorption, distribution, binding, elimination, biotransformation, and excretion; particularly the rates of such movements.
NCI

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marihuana – abúzus

The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
MSH

excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
CSP

Marijuana is a dry, shredded mix of flowers, stems, seeds and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. People usually smoke it as a cigarette or in a pipe. It is the most commonly abused illegal drug in the United States.

Abusing marijuana can result in problems with memory, learning and social behavior. It can interfere with family, school, work and other activities.

Scientific studies are underway to test the safety and usefulness of cannabis compounds for treating certain medical conditions. Currently, smoking marijuana is not recommended for the treatment of any disease or condition.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


MEDLINEPLUS

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chromozómy lidské, pár 7

A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the seventh largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 7 spans more than 158 million base pairs and represents between 5 and 5.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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zeměpisné pojmy

header term for any geographic location; for D43 grants, and R03 TW grants (Fogarty International Center awards), index specific country when possible.
CSP

All of the continents and every country situated within, the UNITED STATES and each of the constituent states arranged by region, CANADA and each of its provinces, AUSTRALIA and each of its states, the major bodies of water and major islands on both hemispheres, and selected major cities. Although the geographic locations are not printed in INDEX MEDICUS as main headings, in indexing they are significant in epidemiologic studies and historical articles and for locating administrative units in education and the delivery of health care.
MSH

Any demarcated area of the Earth; may be determined by both natural and human boundaries.
NCI

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sterilizace

The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
MSH

The process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents.
NCI

The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means
CHV

Any substance or process that is used primarily on non-living objects to kill germs, such as viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms that can cause infection and disease. Most disinfectants are harsh chemicals but sometimes heat or radiation may be used.
NCI

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fenobarbital

A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
MSH

barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat seizures and as a sedative. It is being studied in the treatment of diarrhea and for its ability to increase the antitumor effect of other therapies. It belongs to the family of drugs called barbiturates.
NCI

a drug used for epilepsy and anxiety
CHV

A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42405&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42405&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C739″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization.
NCI

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mastektomie segmentální

Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
MSH

Surgery to remove abnormal tissue or cancer from the breast and a small amount of normal tissue around it. It is a type of breast-sparing surgery.
NCI

The removal of a cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor. Usually some of the lymph nodes under the arm are also taken out.
NCI

The removal of a cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor. Usually some of the lymph nodes under the arm are also taken out. Also called partial mastectomy. (Cancer.gov)
NCI

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kineradiografie

motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
CSP

motion picture study of successive radiographic images.
CSP

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obrovské buňky s cizími tělesy

Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
MSH

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nádory žaludku

Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
MSH

new abnormal gastric tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the stomach.
NCI

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fenylthiazolylthiomočovina

A dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor.
MSH

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Mauritánie

A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.
MSH

A country in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Taxonomic

Used for taxonomic or other systematic or hierarchical classification systems.
MSH

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GLAUKOMA

An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure resulting in damage to the optic nerve and retinal nerve fibers.
CSP

Glaucoma damages the eye`s optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness in the United States. It usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises, damaging the optic nerve. Often there are no symptoms at first, but a comprehensive eye exam can detect it.

People at risk should get eye exams at least every two years. They include

  • African Americans over age 40
  • People over age 60, especially Mexican Americans
  • People with a family history of glaucoma

Early treatment can help protect your eyes against vision loss. Treatments usually include prescription eyedrops and/or surgery.

NIH: National Eye Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by an increase in pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the aqueous humor outflow.
NCI

A condition in which there is a build-up of fluid in the eye, which presses on the retina and the optic nerve. The retina is the layer of nerve tissue inside the eye that senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. Glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and cause loss of vision or blindness.
NCI

Increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
NCI

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Streptomycin Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of streptomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus with antibacterial property. Streptomycin sulfate binds to the S12 protein of the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, thereby inhibiting peptide elongation and protein synthesis, consequently leading to bacterial cell death.
NCI

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fonoforéza

Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.
MSH

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mechlorethamin

A vesicant and necrotizing irritant destructive to mucous membranes. It was formerly used as a war gas. The hydrochloride is used as an antineoplastic in Hodgkin`s disease and lymphomas. It causes severe gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.
MSH

antineoplastic cytotoxic alkylating agent of the nitrogen mustard group.
CSP

group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen; formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now used therapeutically as antineoplastic agents; they are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
CSP

A synthetic agent related to sulphur mustard with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive properties. Nitrogen mustard (a member of a family of chemotherapy agents including cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil) is an irritant and carcinogenic agent metabolized to a highly reactive ethylene immonium derivative; the ethylene immonium derivative alkylates DNA and inhibits DNA replication. This agent also exhibits lympholytic properties. (NCI04)
NCI

A drug used to treat some types of cancer and some skin conditions that may become cancer. It attaches to the cell`s DNA and may kill cancer cells. Mechlorethamine hydrochloride is a type of alkylating agent.
NCI

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klofazimin

A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
MSH

A phenazine dye with anti-mycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The exact mechanism through which clofazimine exerts its effect is unknown. However, it binds preferentially to mycobacterial DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and cell growth. Clofazimine has a slow bactericidal effect on Mycobacterium leprae and is active against various other Mycobacteria.
NCI

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nervus glossopharyngeus

The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
MSH

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