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gangréna

Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
MSH

death and decay of body tissue, often occurring in a limb, caused by insufficient blood supply and usually following injury or disease.
CSP

Death of tissue, usually in considerable mass and generally associated with loss of vascular (nutritive) supply and followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction.
NCI

Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply
CHV

Gangrene is the death of tissues in your body. It happens when a part of your body loses its blood supply. Gangrene can happen on the surface of the body, such as on the skin, or inside the body, in muscles or organs. Causes include:

Skin symptoms may include a blue or black color, pain, numbness, and sores that produce a foul-smelling discharge. If the gangrene is internal, you may run a fever, feel unwell, and the area may be swollen and painful.

Treatment includes surgery, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy. In severe cases an amputation may be necessary.


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spermatokela

A cystic dilation of the EPIDIDYMIS, usually in the head portion (caput epididymis). The cyst fluid contains dead SPERMATOZOA and can be easily differentiated from TESTICULAR HYDROCELE and other testicular lesions.
MSH

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makrostomie

Greatly exaggerated width of the mouth, resulting from failure of union of the maxillary and mandibular processes, with extension of the oral orifice toward the ear. The defect may be unilateral or bilateral. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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perkuse

Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.
MSH

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buňky – kompartmentace

A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
MSH

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gastroenteritida přenosná prasat

A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
MSH

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mícha – nemoci

Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
MSH

pathologic conditions which feature spinal cord damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord.
CSP

Your spinal cord is the part of your nervous system that relays messages to and from your brain. It is housed inside your vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up your spine. Normally, your vertebrae protect your spinal cord. If they don`t, you can sustain a spinal cord injury. Besides injuries, the spinal cord can develop

Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs. Treatments vary but often include medicines and surgery.


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MALARIA

A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
MSH

protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae) and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles; malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands; characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high fever, sweating, shaking chills, and anemia; malaria in animals is caused by other species of plasmodia.
CSP

Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. Infected mosquitoes spread it. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the United States. The disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. If you travel to these countries, you are at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert.

Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea and jaundice. The disease can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with medicines. The type of medicine depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected.

Malaria can be prevented. When traveling to malaria-prone regions

  • See your doctor for medicines that protect you
  • Wear insect repellent with DEET
  • Cover up
  • Sleep under mosquito netting

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

A protozoan infection caused by the genus Plasmodium. There are four species of Plasmodium that can infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, ovale, and malariae. It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Signs and symptoms include paroxysmal high fever, sweating, chills, and anemia.
NCI

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periodika

Publications intended to be issued on an ongoing basis, generally more frequently than annually, containing separate articles, stories, or writings.
MSH

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buňky

The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
MSH

minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane; cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms.
CSP

The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells.
NCI

The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. Includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope. [GOC:go_curators]
GO

Anatomical structure which has as its boundary the external surface of a maximally connected plasma membrane. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
FMA

Anatomical structure that consists of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane, with or without the cell nucleus; together with other cells and intercellular matrix, it constitutes tissues. Examples: lymphocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, neuron.
UWDA

The smallest units of living structure capable of independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and containing a nucleus or nucleoid.
NCI

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geny – ztráta

A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
MSH

genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity.
CSP

The loss of all or a part of a gene. There may also be a change in the RNA and protein made from that gene. Certain gene deletions are found in cancer and in other genetic diseases and abnormalities.
NCI

Any deletion mutation that occurs within a gene, including the 5` and 3` untranslated regions of the gene.
NCI

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spirostany

Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
MSH

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mléčné žlázy zvířat

MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
MSH

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peritonitida

INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
MSH

inflammation of the peritoneum, a condition marked by exudations in the peritoneum of serum, fibrin, cells, and pus.
CSP

inflammation of the thin membrane surrounding abdominal cavity, called peritoneum
CHV

Inflammation of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen). Peritonitis can result from infection, injury, or certain diseases. Symptoms may include swelling of the abdomen, severe pain, and weight loss.
NCI

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meklofenoxát

A drug composed of DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL and parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (PCPA).
MSH

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generalizace (psychologie)

The phenomenon of an organism`s responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
MSH

The process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances; reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
NCI

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sprue tropická

A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
MSH

chronic malabsorption syndrome occuring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics; failed intestinal absorption of nutrients results in malnutrition and anemia due to folate deficiency.
CSP

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mannitol

A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
MSH

six-carbon sugar alcohol formed by reduction of mannose or fructose and widely distributed in plants and fungi.
CSP

A drug used to decrease swelling of the brain and to treat kidney failure. Mannitol can also be used to open the blood-brain barrier, which allows anticancer medicines to enter the brain and treat brain tumors.
NCI

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39493&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39493&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C625″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma.
NCI

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perylen

A 20-carbon dibenz(de,kl)anthracene that can be viewed as a naphthalene fused to a phenalene or as dinaphthalene. It is used as fluorescent lipid probe in the cytochemistry of membranes and is a polycyclic hydrocarbon pollutant in soil and water. Derivatives may be carcinogenic.
MSH

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arteriae cerebrales – nemoci

Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
MSH

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genetická komplementace – testy

A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
MSH

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synthasa škrobu

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.
MSH

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marihuana – abúzus

The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
MSH

excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
CSP

Marijuana is a dry, shredded mix of flowers, stems, seeds and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. People usually smoke it as a cigarette or in a pipe. It is the most commonly abused illegal drug in the United States.

Abusing marijuana can result in problems with memory, learning and social behavior. It can interfere with family, school, work and other activities.

Scientific studies are underway to test the safety and usefulness of cannabis compounds for treating certain medical conditions. Currently, smoking marijuana is not recommended for the treatment of any disease or condition.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


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farmakokinetika

Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and drug ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and TOXICOLOGY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. It includes toxicokinetics, the pharmacokinetic mechanism of the toxic effects of a substance. ADME and ADMET are short-hand abbreviations for absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicology.
MSH

distribution and effectiveness of a drug throughout the body as a function of route, schedule, vehicle, chemical isomer, metabolism, and other factors.
CSP

The activity of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body, localized in the tissues, and excreted.
NCI

how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body
CHV

The characteristic movements of drugs within biological systems, as affected by absorption, distribution, binding, elimination, biotransformation, and excretion; particularly the rates of such movements.
NCI

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oprávnění k praxi

Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
MSH

The process by which a person demonstrates specific knowledge, skills, or abilities in the view of a certifying body. Similarly, the process by which a product or process can achieve certification indicating its suitability for a specific purpose.
NCI

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zeměpisné pojmy

header term for any geographic location; for D43 grants, and R03 TW grants (Fogarty International Center awards), index specific country when possible.
CSP

All of the continents and every country situated within, the UNITED STATES and each of the constituent states arranged by region, CANADA and each of its provinces, AUSTRALIA and each of its states, the major bodies of water and major islands on both hemispheres, and selected major cities. Although the geographic locations are not printed in INDEX MEDICUS as main headings, in indexing they are significant in epidemiologic studies and historical articles and for locating administrative units in education and the delivery of health care.
MSH

Any demarcated area of the Earth; may be determined by both natural and human boundaries.
NCI

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sterilizace

The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
MSH

The process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents.
NCI

The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means
CHV

Any substance or process that is used primarily on non-living objects to kill germs, such as viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms that can cause infection and disease. Most disinfectants are harsh chemicals but sometimes heat or radiation may be used.
NCI

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mastektomie segmentální

Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
MSH

Surgery to remove abnormal tissue or cancer from the breast and a small amount of normal tissue around it. It is a type of breast-sparing surgery.
NCI

The removal of a cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor. Usually some of the lymph nodes under the arm are also taken out.
NCI

The removal of a cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor. Usually some of the lymph nodes under the arm are also taken out. Also called partial mastectomy. (Cancer.gov)
NCI

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fenobarbital

A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
MSH

barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat seizures and as a sedative. It is being studied in the treatment of diarrhea and for its ability to increase the antitumor effect of other therapies. It belongs to the family of drugs called barbiturates.
NCI

a drug used for epilepsy and anxiety
CHV

A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42405&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42405&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C739″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization.
NCI

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Normanské ostrovy

A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)
MSH

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