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vzduch – mikrobiologie

The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
MSH

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dušení se

A condition caused by blocking the airways to the lungs and interference with the respiration by compression or obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
NCI

Food or small objects can cause choking if they get caught in your throat and block your airway. This keeps oxygen from getting to your lungs and brain. If your brain goes without oxygen for more than four minutes, you could have brain damage or die.

Young children are at an especially high risk of choking. They can choke on foods like hot dogs, nuts and grapes, and on small objects like toy pieces and coins. Keep hazards out of their reach and supervise them when they eat.

When someone is choking, quick action can be lifesaving. Learn how to do the Heimlich maneuver – on others and yourself – and CPR.

Food and Drug Administration


MEDLINEPLUS

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karanténa

Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black`s Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
MSH

Place into enforced isolation.
NCI

restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion; it includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country.
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nádory pojivové tkáně

Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.
MSH

new abnormal connective tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease; refers to neoplasms located in the connective tissue as well as those consisting of connective tissue.
CSP

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hydrokortison

The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
MSH

main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex; its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
CSP

A drug used to relieve the symptoms of certain hormone shortages and to suppress an immune response.
NCI

A hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps the body use glucose (a sugar), protein, and fats. Cortisol made in the laboratory is called hydrocortisone. It is used to treat many conditions, including inflammation, allergies, and some cancers. Cortisol is a type of glucocorticoid hormone.
NCI

A synthetic or semisynthetic analog of natural hydrocortisone hormone produced by the adrenal glands with primary glucocorticoid and minor mineralocorticoid effects. As a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppresses immune and inflammatory responses. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39274&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39274&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C555″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic or semisynthetic analog of natural hydrocortisone hormone produced by the adrenal glands with primary glucocorticoid and minor mineralocorticoid effects. As a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppresses immune and inflammatory responses. (NCI04)
NCI

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alkoholismus – poruchy amnestické

A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
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cholesteny

Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
MSH

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Racial group

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on race determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define race, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for racial classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that race is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with one more race categories is preferred to observer identification. The standards use a variety of features to define five minimum race categories. Among these features are descent from “the original peoples” of a specified region or nation. The minimum race categories are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. The federal standards stipulate that race data need not be limited to the five minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories.


HL7V3.0

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on race determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define race, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for racial classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that race is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with one more race categories is preferred to observer identification. The standards use a variety of features to define five minimum race categories. Among these features are descent from “the original peoples” of a specified region or nation. The minimum race categories are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. The federal standards stipulate that race data need not be limited to the five minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories.

OpenIssue:This concept domain definition does not align with current vocabulary practices and is much too US-centric to be appropriate as a “universal” domain.


HL7V3.0

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on race determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define race, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for racial classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that race is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with one more race categories is preferred to observer identification. The standards use a variety of features to define five minimum race categories. Among these features are descent from “the original peoples” of a specified region or nation. The minimum race categories are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. The federal standards stipulate that race data need not be limited to the five minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories.


HL7V3.0

An arbitrary classification of a taxonomic group that is a division of a species. It usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species and is characterized by shared heredity, physical attributes and behavior, and in the case of humans, by common history, nationality, or geographic distribution.
NCI

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nefróza lipoidní

A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.
MSH

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hydroxycholesteroly

cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
CSP

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Algae

major group of lower freshwater, marine, terrestrial or subterranean photosynthetic plants of extremely varied morphology and physiology, and that is commonly considered to be a heterogeneous assemblage.
CSP

Chlorophyll-containing, mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves.
NCI

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chondromalacia patellae

A degeneration of the ARTICULAR CARTILAGE of the PATELLA, caused by a decrease in sulfated MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the ground substance. When accompanied by pain, it is sometimes considered part of or confused with PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME.
MSH

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radiochemie

The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
MSH

branch of chemistry concerned with the interactions of molecules and subatomic particles.
CSP

The science concerned with the effects of radioactivity on health. (from On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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nervový útlum

The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
MSH

depression or prevention of neural impulses.
CSP

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Hymenolepis

A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.
MSH

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aligátoři a krokodýli

Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
MSH

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Chromatiaceae

A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
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radioterapie – plánování počítačové

Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
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neurom

A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A tumor that arises in nerve cells.
NCI

A tumor that grows from a nerve or is composed of nerve cells and nerve fibers.
NCI

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hyperostosis frontalis interna

Thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone, which may be associated with hypertrichosis and obesity. It most commonly affects women near menopause.
MSH

A condition of unknown etiology characterized by thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone of the skull. It is seen more often in females and is usually bilateral.
NCI

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alfa-chlorhydrin

A chlorinated propanediol compound that has shown anti-fertility activity in males and has been used as a chemosterilant in rodents.
MSH

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chromozómy – fragilita

Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
MSH

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Katoenratten

From the Sigmodon genus of rodents, Sigmodon hispidus was the first animal model to be used in polio research. The cotton rat has a stout body, small ears and a dark coat that can be dark brown or mixed buff and black, with a tail length that is 35% of its total body length. As its name suggests, this breed has a proclivity for cotton in its nesting, and is a natural Hanta viral reservoir. The cotton rat has wide applications in viral research.
NCI

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neurosyfilis

Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
MSH

Infection of the brain or spinal cord by Treponema pallidum. It occurs many years following the original infection which remained untreated. Signs and symptoms include abnormal gait, blindness, depression, paralysis, seizures and dementia.
NCI

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DISNEA PSILOGENOA (HIPERAIREZTAPENA)

A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
MSH

Abnormally prolonged, rapid, and deep breathing.
NCI

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alveolektomie

Subtotal or complete excision of the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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chromozómy lidské, pár 7

A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the seventh largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 7 spans more than 158 million base pairs and represents between 5 and 5.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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adrenergní receptory

Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
MSH

family of G protein coupled receptors sensitive to epinephrine, norepinephrine, and their analogs, found in smooth and cardiac muscle, autonomic ganglia, brain, and elsewhere.
CSP

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Nikaragua

A country in Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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hypopituitarismus

Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
MSH

diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, somatotropin; and corticotropin); may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory pituitary neoplasms, metastatic tumors, infarction, pituitary apoplexy, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
CSP

A condition of diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory pituitary neoplasms, metastatic tumors, infarction, pituitary apoplexy, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
NCI

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