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ústní vody

Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
MSH

solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties.
CSP

An aqueous solution which is most often used for its deodorant, refreshing, or antiseptic effect.


HL7V3.0

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amidočerň

A dye used to stain proteins in electrophoretic techniques. It is used interchangeably with its acid form.
MSH

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kolifágy

Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
MSH

a phage isolated from E. coli.
CSP

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angioedémy dědičné

recurring attacks of transient edema suddenly appearing in areas of the skin or mucous membranes and occasionally of the viscera, often associated with dermatographism, urticaria, erythema, and purpura.
CSP

Inherited disorders that are characterized by subcutaneous and submucosal EDEMA in the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT and GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
MSH

Autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities of C1 inhibitor. Patients present with swelling of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and mucosa sites.
NCI

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receptory hypofyzárních hormonů

Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
MSH

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porody mnohočetné

The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
MSH

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kyselina aminoethylfosfonová

An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
MSH

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kolon – nemoci funkční

Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.
MSH

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heterocyklické sloučeniny bicyklické

A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
MSH

A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic. (MeSH)
NCI

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rektovaginální píštěl

An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.
MSH

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svalová spasticita

A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a “free interval”) followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
MSH

Increased involuntary muscle tone caused by central nervous system disorders that affect the regions interfering with voluntary movement. It results in gait, movement, and speech disturbances. Representative examples of disorders causing spasticity include brain or spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.
NCI

A disorder characterized by increased involuntary muscle tone that affects the regions interfering with voluntary movement. It results in gait, movement, and speech disturbances.
NCI

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amniocentéza

Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
MSH

percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid; it is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
CSP

A prenatal diagnostic procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus by a needle inserted into the abdomen. This procedure is used to detect various genetic abnormalities in the fetus and/or the sex of the fetus.
NCI

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ductus choledochus – nemoci

Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
MSH

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hibernace

The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
MSH

state of physical and metabolic dormancy exhibited by some warm blooded animals at seasonal intervals, characterized by lowered heart rate and body temperature (which fluctuates with the ambient), and nutritionally driven by stored body fat.
CSP

Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a period of dormancy in which to pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs. [GOC:jl, PMID:1945046]
GO

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regenerace

The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
MSH

renewal or physiological repair of damaged tissue.
CSP

The regrowth of a lost or destroyed body part, such as an organ or tissue. [GOC:mah]
GO

Reproduction or reconstitution of a lost or injured part. (NCI)
NCI

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Mycobacterium avium komplex

A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
MSH

A group of very similar Mycobacteria consisting of Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare.
NCI

A non-taxonomic grouping of bacteria assigned to and including at least three related subspecies from the Mycobacterium avium species.
NCI

a group of bacteria that cause a serious disease in people with advanced AIDS
CHV

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amylnitrit

A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.
MSH

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konkurenční nabídka

Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.
MSH

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histamin H2 – antagonisté

Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
MSH

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relaxační techniky

A method used to reduce tension and anxiety, and control pain.
NCI

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Myelofibróza

replacement of the bone marrow by fibrous tissue, occurring in association with a myeloproliferative disorder or secondary to another unrelated condition.
CSP

A disorder in which the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue.
NCI

A partial or complete replacement of the bone marrow stroma by fibrous tissue. It can be a primary bone marrow lesion as part of the chronic myeloproliferative disorders (chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis), a manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis), or a secondary phenomenon due to bone marrow involvement by a metastatic tumor (e.g., metastatic breast carcinoma). –2003
NCI

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Anaplasmataceae

A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
MSH

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komplement – alternativní dráha

Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
MSH

The complement system of plasma proteins is an important part of the immune system that forms a cascade of factors that lyses foreign cells. There are two branches of the complement system, the classical pathway that is initiated by antibody-antigen complexes on a cell and the alternative pathway that is antibody independent. The ultimate result in either pathway is the creation of the membrane attack complex, a large pore in the cell membrane that results in cell lysis. The alternative pathway starts with the spontaneous conversion of C3 to an active protease. C3 contains a thioester group that is spontaneously hydrolyzed at a slow rate to create C3(H2O). From there, binding of factor B (Fb) and activation by factor D (Fd) cleaves factor B to create the active protease C3 convertase (AP convertase). This enzyme cleaves C3 to form C3b, which can go on to form a C5 activating convertase. At this point the alternative pathway proceeds in the same manner as the classical pathway, recruiting additional complement factors (C6, C7, C8 and C9) to ultimately form the membrane attack complex and lyse the associated cell. One question about the alternative pathway is how the spontaneous activation of C3 in plasma leads to the lysis of specific cells in the absence of antibody on the cell surface. Active C3b binds to the cell surface, particularly to complement activators like cell wall components and lipopolysaccharide. A constant low level of spontaneous C3b formation ensures that C3b can bind to invading cells and trigger the rest of the alternative complement pathway to lyse the cells even in the absence of an antibody response. The constant low level of C3b activation and potential activation of the alternative pathway is kept in check by a natural damper, factor H and factor I. Factors H and I in plasma inactivate C3b enzyme in solution. Factors H and I cannot inactivate C3b on the cell surface due to protection by properdin, ensuring that the alternative pathway is primarily inactive in plasma and specifically activated on the surface of invading.
NCI

Any process involved in the activation of any of the steps of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade which allows for the direct killing of microbes and the regulation of other immune processes. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 “Fundamental Immunology”]
GO

complement activation sequence initiated by the activation of complement factor C3, which is triggered by the interaction of microbial polysaccharides and properdin without participation of an antigen-antibody reaction.
CSP

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Histoplasma

mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing histoplasmosis in humans and animals; its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii; its teleomorph is Ajellomyces capsulatus.
CSP

A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.
MSH

A genus of microscopic fungus that causes the disease histoplasmosis.
NCI

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represe (psychologie)

active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
CSP

The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
MSH

A psychological mechanism utilized by humans to shield themselves from painful memories or traumatic events. This protection entails the exclusion of memories or thoughts from consciousness.
NCI

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myosinové subfragmenty

Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
MSH

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souběžné přehledy

Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
MSH

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HLA-DP antigeny

A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
MSH

HLA-DP antigen is a class of glycoproteins that consist of dimers of alpha and beta subunits, which are encoded by the polymorphic human genes HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1, respectively. This protein complex is expressed primarily in lymphoid cells and function to present antigens for CD4+ T lymphocytes.
NCI

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dýchání – mrtvý prostor

That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
MSH

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NAD

A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5`-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5`-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5`-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5`-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage; found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH).
CSP

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, a coenzyme, found in eukaryotic cells and is involved in many enzymatic reactions and the production of energy through redox reactions.
NCI

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