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menstruační cyklus

The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
MSH

period from onset of one menstrual bleeding to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate.
CSP

The monthly cycle of hormonal changes from the beginning of one menstrual period to the beginning of the next.
NCI

The Menstrual Cycle involves regularly recurring hormonal changes and physiologic endometrial changes during the reproductive period in human females, and some primates, and culminates in partial sloughing of the endometrium (menstruation) in the absence of fertilization. For most women, one cycle takes 28 days. (NCI)
NCI

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Suxamethonium Chloride

The chloride salt form of succinylcholine, a quaternary ammonium compound and depolarizing agent with short-term muscle relaxant properties. Succinylcholine chloride binds to nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction and opening the ligand-gated channels in the same way as acetylcholine, resulting in depolarization and inhibition of neuromuscular transmission. Depolarization may be prolonged due to succinylcholine`s resistance to acetylcholinesterases thereby leading to disorganized muscle contraction followed by skeletal muscle relaxation and flaccid paralysis.
NCI

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Gorilla gorilla

anthropoid ape (Gorilla gorilla) of western equatorial Africa related to the chimpanzee but less erect and much larger.
CSP

This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
MSH

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vazba kompetitivní

The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
MSH

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taniny

Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
MSH

lustrous powder, yellow to light-brown in color, that is found in tree bark (particularly oak), fruits, leaves, and tea; used medicinally as an astringent, commercially in tanning hides, as a dye mordant, and as a histological fixative and stain.
CSP

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Poecilia

A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
MSH

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Sarkolysin

The isomeric form of melphalan, with alkylating activity. Sarcolysin crosslinks DNA, thereby causing an inhibition in DNA replication and eventually a reduction in cellular proliferation.
NCI

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DNA řízená DNA-polymerasa

DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
MSH

Nucleotidyltransferases that catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA. EC 2.7.7.7 or EC 2.7.7.49
NCI

Catalyses DNA-template-directed extension of the 3`- end of a DNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. Cannot initiate a chain de novo. Requires a primer, which may be DNA or RNA. (IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature)
NCI

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granulom obrovskobuněčný

A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.
MSH

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biologický transport aktivní

The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
MSH

any ATP-driven cellular process for moving solutes or organelles; e.g., ATPase transmembrane pumps, pinocytosis and related membrane flux events, cytoskeletal rearrangements; contrast with PASSIVE TRANSPORT.
CSP

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technecium 99mTc-agregovaný albumin

A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
MSH

An injectable radiopharmaceutical formulation containing human serum albumin (HSA) labeled with technetium-99m (Tc99m) in macroaggregates (MAA) with diagnostic imaging activity. Technetium Tc 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin contains the gamma-emitting Tc99m, a metastable nuclide of molybdenum-99. Upon injection into the hepatic artery and upon SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging, distribution patterns and possible prediction of expected distribution of agents with similar particle sizes within the liver can be assessed and may give a prediction about the tumor response upon administration of such agents.
NCI

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poly I

A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
MSH

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metakarpální kosti

Any of the five bones between the wrist and the fingers that form the skeleton of the palm.
NCI

The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
MSH

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2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamfetamin

psychedelic phenylisopropylamine derivative, commonly called DOM, whose mood altering effects and mechanism of action may be similar to those of LSD.
CSP

a kind of hallucinogenic drug
CHV

A psychedelic phenyl isopropylamine derivative, commonly called DOM, whose mood-altering effects and mechanism of action may be similar to those of LSD.
MSH

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růst – poruchy

Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
MSH

Does your child seem much shorter – or much taller – than other kids his or her age? It could be normal, or it could be a sign of a problem. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease.

The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. Children who have too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth.

People can also have too much growth hormone. Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body grow too much. In adults, it can cause acromegaly, which makes the hands, feet and face larger than normal. Possible treatments include surgery to remove the tumor, medicines and radiation therapy.


MEDLINEPLUS

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dvojitý lom

The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

transmission of light unequally in different directions, such as by prisms and other crystals and ordered materials.
CSP

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matrice genetické

Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
MSH

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polyhydroxyethylmethakrylát

A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.
MSH

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methadylacetát

A narcotic analgesic with a long onset and duration of action. It is used mainly in the treatment of narcotic dependence.
MSH

methadone analog.
CSP

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Dracunculus (Nematoda)

A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.
MSH

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guanylylimidodifosfát

A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase.
MSH

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blastická krize

An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a rapid increase in the proportion of immature white blood cells (blasts) in the blood and bone marrow to greater than 30%.
MSH

An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia. It is characterized by: 1. the presence of blasts in the peripheral blood or bone marrow that are at least 20% of the peripheral blood white cells or of the nucleated cells in the bone marrow respectively, or 2. an extramedullary proliferation of blasts, and/or 3. when there are large aggregates and clusters of blasts in the bone marrow biopsy specimen (adapted from WHO, 2001).
NCI

A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which tiredness, fever, and an enlarged spleen occur during the blastic phase, when more than 30% of the cells in the blood or bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells).
NCI

A phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia in which 20% or more of the cells in the blood or bone marrow are blast cells (immature blood cells). When tiredness, fever, and an enlarged spleen occur during the blastic phase, it is called blast crisis.
NCI

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terminátorové oblasti (genetika)

DNA sequences which signal the termination of transcription.
CSP

DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
MSH

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polyribozómy

A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
MSH

complex made up of ribosomal subunits assembled among themselves by the filaments of messenger RNA containing the genetic information; they are involved in the synthesis of peptides.
CSP

Several ribosomes bound to one mRNA. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

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methotrexát

An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
MSH

folic acid antagonist that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of nucleic acids, thymidylate, and protein; used as an antineoplastic in a wide variety of malignancies, and as an antipsoriatic and antirheumatic.
CSP

A drug used to treat some types of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and severe skin conditions, such as psoriasis. Amethopterin stops cells from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite.
NCI

cancer treatment drug
CHV

An antimetabolite with antineoplastic and immunomodulating properties. Methotrxate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Methotrexate also exhibits potent immunosuppressant properties. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41719&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41719&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C642″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An antimetabolite and antifolate agent with antineoplastic and immunosuppressant activities. Methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Methotrexate also exhibits potent immunosuppressant activity although the mechanism(s) of actions is unclear.
NCI

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léky – inkompatibilita

The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

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Haemophilus ducreyi

A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.
MSH

species of Haemophilus that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, chancroid.
CSP

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faktory krevní koagulace

Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
MSH

class of endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
CSP

Factors in the blood that are essential for blood coagulation. The absence or mutation of these factors can lead to hemophilia and blood clotting disorders.
NCI

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tetrahydrokanabinol

A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound. Dronabinol is a synthetic form of delta-9-THC.
MSH

A synthetic pill form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an active ingredient in marijuana that is used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.
NCI

an organic chemical extracted from Marihuana
CHV

A synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a psychoactive substance found in Cannabis sativa. Dronabinol acts directly on the appetite and vomiting control centers in the brain to stimulate appetite and prevent emesis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39707&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39707&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C867″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a psychoactive substance found in Cannabis sativa. Dronabinol acts directly on the appetite and vomiting control centers in the brain to stimulate appetite and prevent emesis. (NCI04)
NCI

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Porifera

phylum of sponges, the most primitive of multicellular animals; perforated with many pores to admit water, through which food is strained; all sponges are sessile and exhibit little detectable movement; most are hermaphroditic; organisms are a source of alkaloids, sterols and other natural products useful in medicine and biological research.
CSP

The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
MSH

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