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hexestrol

A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
MSH

A synthetic hydrogenated derivative of diethylstilbestrol (DES). Hexestrol exhibits strong affinity for estrogen receptors that are overexpressed in some types of cancers. When conjugated with a neoplastic drug, hexestrol may selectively concentrate the cytotoxic agent in estrogen receptor-rich tumors. This agent may also be mutagenic. (NCI04)
NCI

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reflex akustický

Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
MSH

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hořčičné sloučeniny

Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
MSH

strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups; although structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA; they are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents; use this term to cover the chemical warfare agent mustard gas.
CSP

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komunitní zdravotní výchova

Draws on social relationships and organizations to reach large populations through media and interpersonal strategies that deliver messages and mechanisms to reduce chronic diseases.
NCI

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ampicilin

semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
CSP

A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam penicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ampicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Ampicillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, therefore, can be used in wide range of gram-positive and -negative infections.
NCI

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kyčel – fraktury

Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
MSH

breaks or rupture in bones or cartilages of the hip; for fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region use LIMB FRACTURE.
CSP

A finding of traumatic injury to the hip in which the continuity of either the femoral head, femoral neck, intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric regions is broken.
NCI

Traumatic or pathological injury to the hip in which the continuity of either the femoral head, femoral neck, intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric regions is broken. Symptoms include pain in the hip or groin, bruising and swelling in and around the hip area. The injured hip is turned outward and the leg appears shorter on that side.
NCI

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dávkové mechanismy

Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
MSH

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Mycoplasmatales

order of highly pleomorphic, gram negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.
CSP

An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.
MSH

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komplement C4a

The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.
MSH

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analeptika

A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
MSH

Any agent capable of having a stimulating effect on the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation.
CSP

In medicine, a family of drugs used to treat depression, attention-deficit disorder (a common disorder in which children are inattentive, impulsive, and/or over-active), and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleepiness). Stimulants increase brain activity, alertness, attention, and energy. They also raise blood pressure and increase heart rate and breathing rate.
NCI

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histokompatibilita – antigeny

A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
MSH

group of antigens that includes major histocompatibility antigens, genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex, which determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejection; and minor histocompatibility antigens, systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
CSP

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ledviny – vrozené poruchy tubulárního transportu

Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
MSH

genetically determined disorders of the reabsorptive functions of the kidney with regard to specific nephron segments responsible for specific transport functions, classifiable by proximal nephron function, loop of Henle function, and distal nephron function; transport defects can be selective or nonselective.
CSP

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myoklonus

Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
MSH

shock-like contraction of a portion of a muscle, an entire muscle, or a group of muscles; may be part of a disease process or a normal physiological response.
CSP

A sudden, brief, strong contraction of a muscle or group of muscles that cannot be controlled.
NCI

A sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles; these movements may develop as a symptom of a number of neurological diseases including epilepsy, Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease, or Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease.
NCI

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počítačová gramotnost

Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
MSH

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ankylostomiáza

Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
MSH

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HIV séroprevalence

Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
MSH

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metody výzkumu

Technique used in the laboratory for scientific research.
NCI

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HIPOTIROIDISMOA/MISOEDEMA

A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
MSH

condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling with abnormal deposits of mucin in the skin and other tissues; it is produced by a functional insufficiency of the thyroid gland, resulting in deficiency of thyroid hormone.
CSP

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virus krymsko-konžské hemoragické horečky

A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
MSH

tick borne nairovirus, causes often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans.
CSP

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chrapot

An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
MSH

Harsh and raspy voice secondary to laryngeal infection, voice overuse, irritants inhalation, vocal cord paralysis, vocal cord polyps, and malignant neoplasms arising from or spreading to the larynx.
NCI

A disorder characterized by harsh and raspy voice arising from or spreading to the larynx.
NCI

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dýchací systém – infekce

Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
MSH

invasion and growth of microorganisms in the respiratory system; may be clinically inapparent or result in local cellular injury.
CSP

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nafoxidin

An estrogen antagonist that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer.
MSH

A triphenylethylene nonsteroidal agent that acts as a partial estrogen antagonist. Nafoxidine competes with endogenous estrogen for binding to specific estrogen receptors. This agent also inhibits angiogenesis in some tissues by blocking the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); paradoxically, it may enhance angiogenesis in uterine tissue. Nafoxidine also induces oxidative stress, protein kinase C and calcium signaling. (NCI04)
NCI

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spotřebitelská účast

Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
MSH

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hlísti oblí – infekce

Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
MSH

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retina – perforace

Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
MSH

A usually small tearing of the retina occurring when the vitreous separates from the retina. It may lead to retinal detachment. Symptoms include flashes and floaters.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a small laceration of the retina, this occurs when the vitreous separates from the retina. Symptoms include flashes and floaters.
NCI

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naproxen

An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
MSH

6-methoxy-alpha-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid; nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID); acts by inhibiting cyclooxygenase and thus prostaglandin synthesis; tocolytic oxytocin antagonist.
CSP

a drug that relieves pain, inflammation, and fever
CHV

A drug used to treat mild pain and the symptoms of arthritis and several other conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of bone pain in patients with cancer. Naprosyn stops the body from making substances that cause pain and inflammation. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a type of cyclooxygenase inhibitor.
NCI

A propionic acid derivative and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Naproxen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis is responsible for the therapeutic effects of naproxen. Naproxen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40222&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40222&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C680″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A propionic acid derivative and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Naproxen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis is responsible for the therapeutic effects of naproxen. Naproxen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.
NCI

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kontrastová senzitivita

The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
MSH

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nemocnice – spoluúčast lékařů mimo nemocnici

A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.
MSH

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Reyeův syndrom

A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
MSH

rare, acute, sometimes fatal disease of childhood, most often occurring as a sequel of varicella or a viral upper respiratory infection of childhood; marked by recurrent vomiting and elevated serum transaminase levels with distinctive changes in the liver and other viscera; an encephalopathic phase with acute brain swelling disturbances of consciousness and seizures may follow.
CSP

An acute and potentially fatal metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral edema, fatty liver and hypoglycemia. It occurs primarily in children and has been associated with the use of aspirin for the treatment of viral infections. However, it can also occur in the absence of aspirin use.
NCI

Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver and brain of someone who recently had a viral infection. It always follows another illness. Although it mostly affects children and teens, anyone can get it. It can develop quickly and without warning. It is most common during flu season. Symptoms include

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Listlessness
  • Personality change – such as irritability, combativeness or confusion
  • Delirium
  • Convulsions
  • Loss of consciousness

If these symptoms occur soon after a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, so quick diagnosis and treatment are critical. Treatment focuses on preventing brain damage. There is no cure.

The cause of Reye syndrome is unknown. However, studies have shown that taking aspirin increases the risk of getting it. Because of that, health care professionals now recommend other pain relievers for young patients.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A rare disease that damages the brain and liver and causes death if not treated. It occurs most often in children younger than 15 years who have had a fever-causing virus, such as chickenpox or flu. Taking aspirin during a viral illness may increase the risk of Reye syndrome.
NCI

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natriuréza

Sodium excretion by URINATION.
MSH

OBSOLETE. The process of renal sodium excretion. [GOC:mtg_cardio, ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

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