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chromozómy lidské, pár 8

A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the eighth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 8 spans about 145 million base pairs and represents between 4.5 and 5.0% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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odpadky

Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)
MSH

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spermicidy

Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
MSH

agent destructive to spermatozoa.
CSP

A chemical product that is deleterious to sperms and can be in the form of either a jelly, foam, or cream.
NCI

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makuly akustické

The sensory areas on the vertical wall of the saccule and in the floor of the utricle. The hair cells in the maculae are innervated by fibers of the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
MSH

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parfém

A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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Cinnamomum zeylanicum

The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.
MSH

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gastroenterologie

A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
MSH

branch of medicine dealing with the study of disorders affecting the stomach, intestines, and associated organs
CHV

The branch of medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract.
NCI

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mícha – poranění

Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
MSH

damage inflicted on any part of the spinal cord as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
CSP

Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or dislocates your vertebrae, the bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don`t sever your spinal cord. Instead, they cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into cord tissue or press down on the nerve parts that carry signals. In a complete spinal cord injury, the cord can`t relay messages below the level of the injury. As a result, you are paralyzed below the level of injury. In an incomplete injury, you have some movement and sensation below the injury.

A spinal cord injury is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can reduce long-term effects. Later treatment usually includes medicine and rehabilitation therapy.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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malárie ptačí

Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
MSH

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periodicita

The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
MSH

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klathrin

The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
MSH

3-armed structural protein which forms cagelike lattices around the cytoplasmic face of intracellular vesicular membranes, where it regulates fusion and transport events.
CSP

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geny – duplikace

Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
MSH

the production of a tandem repeat of a DNA sequence by unequal crossing over or by an accident of replication.
CSP

Any DNA sequence rearrangement that results in the gain of copies of a genomic region, typically in the form of long interspersed sequences, short interspersed sequences, satellite sequences and retrotransposons. The appearance of duplications of DNA within the genome plays an important role in the diversification of genomes.
NCI

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Spiruridae

A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
MSH

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savci

Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
MSH

warm-blooded chordates with hair, 7 cervical vertebrates, 4 chambered heart, 5 or fewer digits on each limb, mammary glands with milk for feeding young; can be terrestrial, aerial or aquatic.
CSP

A class of warm-blooded vertebrate animals having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk.
NCI

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peritonzilární absces

An accumulation of purulent material in the area between the PALATINE TONSIL and its capsule.
MSH

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klofenapát

An oral hypolipemic agent primarily used in DOGS and RATS.
MSH

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generalizace – odpověď

The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
MSH

principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
CSP

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sputum

Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
MSH

mucus material produced by the cells lining the respiratory tract.
CSP

Material containing mucus, cellular debris, microorganisms and sometimes blood or pus. It is ejected through the mouth from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea. (NCI)
NCI

Material containing mucus, cellular debris, microorganisms and sometimes blood or pus. It is ejected through the mouth from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
NCI

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mannitoldehydrogenasy

Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.
MSH

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pesary

Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
MSH

A vaginal pessary is a removable structure placed in the vagina to support the pelvic organs and is used to treat conditions such as uterine prolapse (falling down of uterus), uterine retroposition (backward displacement), or gynecologic hernia.
SPN

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klozapin

A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
MSH

tricyclic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent; binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile; it is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype, and also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity; agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
CSP

a drug used to treat schizophrenia
CHV

A synthetic dibenzo-diazepine derivative, atypical antipsychotic Clozapine blocks several neurotransmitter receptors in the brain (dopamine type 4, serotonin type 2, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine receptors). Unlike traditional antipsychotic agents, it weakly blocks dopamine type 2 receptors. It relieves schizophrenic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, dementia). (NCI04)
NCI

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genetické poradenství

An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
MSH

educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them; the purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs; psychosocial support is usually offered.
CSP

A communication process between a specially trained health professional and a person concerned about the genetic risk of disease. The person`s family and personal medical history may be discussed, and counseling may lead to genetic testing.
NCI

If you are expecting a baby or planning to have a baby, your doctor can run many tests to help assess the health of both you and your baby. Your doctor may also refer you for genetic counseling. Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A genetics professional meets with you to discuss genetic risks. You may follow up with genetic testing.

There are many reasons to seek genetic counseling. You may consider it if you

  • Have or are concerned you have an inherited disorder
  • Are pregnant or planning to be pregnant after age 35
  • Already have a child with a genetic disorder or birth defect
  • Have had two or more pregnancy losses or a baby who died
  • Have had ultrasound or screening tests that suggest a possible problem


MEDLINEPLUS

The process whereby an expert in hereditary disorders provides information about risk and clinical burden of a disorder or disorders to patients or relatives in families with genetic disorders as an aid to making informed and responsible decisions about marriage, children, early diagnosis, and handling disability.
NCI

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mořská hvězdice

Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
MSH

body is flattened and flexible with endoskeleton of ossicles separated by connective tissue; typically with five rays rising from a central disc.
CSP

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marihuana – kouření

Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
MSH

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Pharmacokinetic aspects

Used for the mechanism, dynamics and kinetics of exogenous chemical and drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution, release, transport, uptake and elimination as a function of dosage, extent and rate of metabolic processes.
MSH

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Cockayneův syndrom

A syndrome characterized by multiple system abnormalities including DWARFISM; PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; PREMATURE AGING; and HEARING LOSS. It is caused by mutations of a number of autosomal recessive genes encoding proteins that involve transcriptional-coupled DNA REPAIR processes. Cockayne syndrome is classified by the severity and age of onset. Type I (classical; CSA) is early childhood onset in the second year of life; type II (congenital; CSB) is early onset at birth with severe symptoms; type III (xeroderma pigmentosum; XP) is late childhood onset with mild symptoms.
MSH

A genetic condition characterized by short stature, premature aging, sensitivity to light, and possibly deafness and mental retardation.
NCI

An autosomal recessive syndrome caused by mutations in the ERCC8 and ERCC6 genes. It is characterized by growth and developmental delay, vision and hearing impairment, and impairment of the peripheral nervous system function.
NCI

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zeměpis

The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

The science that deals with the world and its inhabitants; a description of the earth, or a portion of the earth, including its structure, features, products, political divisions, and the people by whom it is inhabited. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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sterilizace nedobrovolná

Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.
MSH

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prostá mastektomie

Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
MSH

Removal of the breast.
NCI

A surgical procedure involving the removal of the entire breast tissue, nipple and a portion of the overlying skin, while leaving the axillary contents intact.
NCI

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fenolftaleiny

A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
MSH

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