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azaserin

Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
MSH

a kind of antibiotic and antitumor drug
CHV

A naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic properties, Azaserine functions as a purine antagonist and glutamine analogue (glutamine amidotransferase inhibitor) that competitively inhibits pathways in which glutamine is metabolized. An antibiotic and antitumor agent, Azaserine is used in clinical studies as a potential antineoplastic agent. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39156&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39156&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C289″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic properties, Azaserine functions as a purine antagonist and glutamine analogue (glutamine amidotransferase inhibitor) that competitively inhibits pathways in which glutamine is metabolized. An antibiotic and antitumor agent, Azaserine is used in clinical studies as a potential antineoplastic agent. (NCI04)
NCI

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časoprostorové shlukování

A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
MSH

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mikroskopie

The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
MSH

application of microscope magnification to the study of materials that cannot be properly seen by the unaided eye.
CSP

An assessment by microscope.
NCI

The application of microscope magnification to the study of materials that cannot be properly seen by the unaided eye.
NCI

Microscopy


HL7V3.0

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diagnostické techniky urologické

detection or classification of urinary tract diseases or disorders.
CSP

Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.
MSH

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penis – erekce

The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
MSH

physiological response of penile erectile tissue engorging with blood due to male sexual arousal.
CSP

The hardening, enlarging and rising of the penis which often occurs in the sexually aroused male and enables sexual intercourse. Achieved by increased inflow of blood into the vessels of erectile tissue, and decreased outflow. [GOC:jl, Wikipedia:Penile_erection]
GO

In medicine, the swelling of the penis with blood, causing it to become firm.
NCI

The hardening, enlarging and rising of the penis which often occurs in the sexually aroused male.
NCI

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sluchové pomůcky

Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
MSH

wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing; devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids.
CSP

A hearing aid is a small electronic device that you wear in or behind your ear. It magnifies sound vibrations entering the ear. That makes some sounds louder. A hearing aid can help people hear more in both quiet and noisy situations.

Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage to the small sensory cells in the inner ear. The damage can occur as a result of disease, aging, or injury from noise or certain medicines.

Only about one out of five people who would benefit from a hearing aid actually uses one. If you think a hearing aid could help you, visit your doctor.

NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders


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Bacillus anthracis

causes anthrax in humans and animals.
CSP

A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Bacillus anthracis.
NCI

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spektrální analýza

The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

Image where signals are identified and separated according to their frequencies, e.g., to identify individual chemicals, or individual nuclei in a chemical compound.
NCI

The study of the amount of light that is taken up, given off, or scattered (reflected) by an object. Spectroscopy breaks down light and measures different wavelengths of visible and non-visible light. In medicine, different types of spectroscopy are being used to study tissues and to help make a diagnosis.
NCI

The technique of measuring the emission and absorption of different wavelengths (spectra) of visible and non-visible light. This can be done via a spectroscope, which consists of a slit, prism, collimator lens, object lens, and a grating.
NCI

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mifepriston

A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
MSH

11-((4-dimethylamino) phenyl)-17-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl) estra-4,9- dien-3-one; progesterone and glucocorticoid antagonist with potential applications in terminating pregnancy, controlling menstruation, and treating hypercortisolism.
CSP

A drug used to end early pregnancies. It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Mifepristone blocks the action of progesterone, a hormone that helps some cancers grow. It is a type of antiprogesterone.
NCI

A synthetic compound with antiprogesterone properties. Mifepristone competitively binds to the progesterone receptor, leading to changes in the endometrial blood supply. This agent also exhibits antiglucocorticoid and weak antiandrogenic activity. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40888&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40888&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C655″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A derivative of the synthetic progestin norethindrone with antiprogesterone activity. Mifepristone competitively binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in inhibition of the effects of endogenous or exogenous progesterone. This agent also exhibits antiglucocorticoid and weak antiandrogenic activities.
NCI

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diazoxid

A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
MSH

peripheral vasodilator that reduces blood pressure; diazoxide also has antidiuretic and hypoglycemic effects.
CSP

A benzothiadiazine derivate with antihypertensive and hyperglycemic activities. Diazoxide increases membrane permeability to potassium ions in vascular smooth muscle, thereby stabilizing the membrane action potential and preventing vascular smooth muscle contraction; this results in peripheral vasodilatation and decreases in peripheral vascular resistance. This agent also inhibits insulin release by interacting with ATP-sensitive potassium channels of pancreatic islet beta-cells. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39290&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39290&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C428″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A benzothiadiazine derivate with antihypertensive and hyperglycemic activities. Diazoxide increases membrane permeability to potassium ions in vascular smooth muscle, thereby stabilizing the membrane action potential and preventing vascular smooth muscle contraction; this results in peripheral vasodilatation and decreases in peripheral vascular resistance. This agent also inhibits insulin release by interacting with ATP-sensitive potassium channels of pancreatic islet beta-cells.
NCI

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peptický vřed – perforace

Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
MSH

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srdce – defekty síňového septa

Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
MSH

A congenital disorder characterized by the presence of a defect (opening) in the septum that separates the two atria of the heart. The atrial septal opening that is present in the fetus and normally closes within weeks or months after birth.
NCI

defect in the wall between the lower chambers of the heart
CHV

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bakteriurie

The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
MSH

presence of bacteria in the urine with or without consequent urinary tract infection.
CSP

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spermicidy

Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
MSH

agent destructive to spermatozoa.
CSP

A chemical product that is deleterious to sperms and can be in the form of either a jelly, foam, or cream.
NCI

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menšiny národnostní

A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
MSH

A minority is a group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it, often people with different nationality, religion, culture or lifestyle from that of the mainstream in the society; racial or ethnic groups officially recognized by the U.S. government as minority populations.
NCI

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dideoxyadenosin

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3`-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
MSH

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine and a prodrug of didanosine in which the 3` hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Dideoxyadenosine competitively inhibits adenylyl cyclase, thereby reducing levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). By inhibiting cAMP-mediated gene activation in tumor cells, this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40799&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40799&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C429″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine and a prodrug of didanosine in which the 3` hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Dideoxyadenosine competitively inhibits adenylyl cyclase, thereby reducing levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). By inhibiting cAMP-mediated gene activation in tumor cells, this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation. (NCI04)
NCI

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parfém

A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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helium

Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003; a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion; medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics.
CSP

A gaseous element with atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.00.
NCI

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Barrettův jícen

A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett`s columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
MSH

A condition in which the cells lining the lower part of the esophagus have changed or been replaced with abnormal cells that could lead to cancer of the esophagus. The backing up of stomach contents (reflux) may irritate the esophagus and, over time, cause Barrett`s esophagus.
NCI

Esophageal lesion lined with columnar metaplastic epithelium which is flat or villiform. Barrett epithelium is characterized by two different types of cells: goblet cells and columnar cells. The symptomatology of Barrett esophagus is that of gastro-esophageal reflux. It is the precursor of most esophageal adenocarcinomas. (WHO)
NCI

syndrome including peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, often with stricture, due to the presence of columnar lined epithelium, which may contain functional mucous cells, parietal cells, or chief cells in the esophagus instead of normal squamous cell epithelium; sometimes pre-malignant, followed by esophageal adenocarcinoma.
CSP

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mícha – poranění

Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
MSH

damage inflicted on any part of the spinal cord as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
CSP

Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or dislocates your vertebrae, the bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don`t sever your spinal cord. Instead, they cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into cord tissue or press down on the nerve parts that carry signals. In a complete spinal cord injury, the cord can`t relay messages below the level of the injury. As a result, you are paralyzed below the level of injury. In an incomplete injury, you have some movement and sensation below the injury.

A spinal cord injury is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can reduce long-term effects. Later treatment usually includes medicine and rehabilitation therapy.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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mitrální chlopeň

The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
MSH

valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
CSP

Atrioventricular valve which has as its parts the anterior and posterior leaflets, attached to the fibrous ring of mitral valve.
FMA

valve between the upper and lower chambers of the left side of the heart
CHV

A dual-flap valve of the heart that regulates the flow of blood between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart.
NCI

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diethylnitrosamin

A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
MSH

nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
CSP

A synthetic light-sensitive, volatile, clear yellow oil that is soluble in water, lipids, and other organic solvents. It is used as gasoline and lubricant additive, antioxidant, and stabilizer for industry materials. When heated to decomposition, N-nitrosodiethylamine emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides. N-Nitrosodiethylamine affects DNA integrity, probably by alkylation, and is used in experimental research to induce liver tumorigenesis. It is considered to be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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periodicita

The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
MSH

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krevní nemoci

Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the blood and blood forming tissues.
CSP

determination of a blood disorder based on symptoms, medical history, risk factors, and clinical tests.
CSP

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zobák

In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
MSH

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Spiruridae

A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
MSH

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molekulární sondy – techniky

The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
MSH

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dihydroergokryptin

A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE that contains an isopropyl sidechain at the 2` position and an alpha-isobutyl sidechain at 5`alpha position of the molecule.
MSH

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peritonzilární absces

An accumulation of purulent material in the area between the PALATINE TONSIL and its capsule.
MSH

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hemodialyzační roztoky

Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
MSH

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