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benzylidenové sloučeniny

Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.
MSH

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hlad

The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
MSH

normal drive for nutrients; do not confuse with STARVATION.
CSP

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terapie realitou

Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients` personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
MSH

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disacharidy

Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
MSH

oligosaccharide containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
CSP

A carbohydrate comprised of two monosaccharides joined by an ether bridge (covalent bonds centered by an oxygen).
NCI

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TUMORE ONAIRE EDO GAIZTOA

New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
MSH

An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer).
NCI

An abnormal tissue growth resulted from uncontrolled cell proliferation. Benign neoplastic cells resemble normal cells without exhibiting significant cytologic atypia, while malignant ones exhibit overt signs such as dysplastic features, atypical mitotic figures, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism, and anaplasia. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include papillomas, cystadenomas, and lipomas; malignant neoplasms include carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemias. — 2004 (NCI)
NCI

growth of the tumor after morphology of cell has changed; cells may or may not have transformed to a cancerous state.
CSP

A benign or malignant tissue growth resulting from uncontrolled cell proliferation. Benign neoplastic cells resemble normal cells without exhibiting significant cytologic atypia, while malignant cells exhibit overt signs such as dysplastic features, atypical mitotic figures, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism, and anaplasia. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include papillomas, cystadenomas, and lipomas; malignant neoplasms include carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemias.
NCI

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amenorea

Absence of menstruation.
MSH

absence of menses for three months or more.
CSP

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betahistin

A histamine analog and H1 receptor agonist that serves as a vasodilator. It is used in MENIERE DISEASE and in vascular headaches but may exacerbate bronchial asthma and peptic ulcers.
MSH

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hydrocefalus normotenzní

A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
MSH

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receptory gonadotropinů

Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
MSH

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Distance

The space separating two objects or points.
NCI

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nefrologie

A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
MSH

A branch of medicine concerned with the development, anatomy, function, and dysfunction of the kidney.
NCI

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aminokyseliny diaminové

dibasic amino acids.
CSP

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žlučové cesty intrahepatické

Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
MSH

The bile ducts that pass through and drain bile from the liver.
NCI

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kyseliny hydroxybenzoové

Benzoic acid substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
MSH

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rekombinantní proteiny

Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
MSH

peptides or proteins produced by genes which have been artificially inserted into living cells or cell-free expression systems; index with or without RECOMBINANT DNA and the following RTs as needed.
CSP

Proteins produced by genes or recombinant DNA that has been artificially engineered and inserted into a heterologous host. Recombinant proteins are used extensively by investigators of disease pathways to identify protein targets for potential drug therapies.
NCI

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DNA

deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells; eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions; DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
CSP

A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
MSH

A long linear double-stranded polymer formed from nucleotides attached to a deoxyribose backbone and found in the nucleus of a cell; associated with the transmission of genetic information.
NCI

The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.
NCI

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netropsin

A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.
MSH

basic oligopeptide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces netropsis; it is cytotoxic and is useful in genetics research because it binds specifically and strongly to adenine-thymine areas of DNA.
CSP

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aminochinoliny

Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
MSH

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biogenní monoaminy

Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
MSH

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hygromycin B

Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.
MSH

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reflex akustický

Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
MSH

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DNA satelitní

Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
MSH

DNA that contains many tandem highly repetitive sequences, that have a base composition (and thus density) sufficiently different from that of normal DNA that it sediments as a distinct band in cesium chloride density gradients. Satellite DNA is located at very specific spots in the genome (on chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and the Y chromosome, the tiny short arms of chromosomes 13-15 and 21 and 22, and near the centromeres of chromosomes). (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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neuroleptický maligní syndrom

A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
MSH

A life-threatening condition that may be caused by certain drugs used to treat mental illness, nausea, or vomiting. Symptoms include high fever, sweating, unstable blood pressure, confusion, and stiffness.
NCI

A rare, life-threatening disorder that is caused by neuroleptic medications. It is characterized by fever, muscular cramps and rigidity, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and changes in the mental status that may lead to coma.
NCI

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ampicilin

semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
CSP

A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam penicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ampicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Ampicillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, therefore, can be used in wide range of gram-positive and -negative infections.
NCI

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biopsie

Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
MSH

removal and pathologic examination of tissue taken from the living body and performed to establish a more exact diagnosis.
CSP

The removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope or perform other tests on the cells or tissue. There are many different types of biopsy procedures. The most common types include: (1) incisional biopsy, in which only a sample of tissue is removed; (2) excisional biopsy, in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed; and (3) needle biopsy, in which a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle.
NCI

A biopsy is a procedure that removes a small piece of living tissue from your body. The tissue is examined with a microscope for signs of damage or disease. Biopsies can be done on all parts of the body. A biopsy is the only test that can tell for sure if a suspicious area is cancer. But biopsies are performed for many other reasons too.

There are different ways to do a biopsy. A needle biopsy removes tissue with a needle passed through your skin to the site of the problem. Other kinds of biopsies require surgery.


MEDLINEPLUS

The removal of tissue specimens or fluid from the living body for microscopic examination, performed to establish a diagnosis.
NCI

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hyperlipoproteinémie typ V

A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .
MSH

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dávkové mechanismy

Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
MSH

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vztah dávky záření a odpovědi

The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
MSH

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neurosekreční systémy

A system of neurons that has the specialized function to produce and secrete hormones, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an endocrine organ or system.
MSH

organs, structures, or transmitter/receptor systems involved in communication between the nervous and endocrine systems.
CSP

Having to do with the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. Neuroendocrine describes certain cells that release hormones into the blood in response to stimulation of the nervous system.
NCI

A system of neurosecretory neurons that release hormones to the circulatory system.
NCI

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analeptika

A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
MSH

Any agent capable of having a stimulating effect on the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation.
CSP

In medicine, a family of drugs used to treat depression, attention-deficit disorder (a common disorder in which children are inattentive, impulsive, and/or over-active), and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleepiness). Stimulants increase brain activity, alertness, attention, and energy. They also raise blood pressure and increase heart rate and breathing rate.
NCI

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