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krátkodobá paměť

Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
MSH

temporary storage of information for a few seconds to hours, as opposed to long-term memory which refers to material stored for days, years, or a lifetime.
CSP

The memory process that deals with the storage, retrieval and modification of information received a short time (up to about 30 minutes) ago. This type of memory is typically dependent on direct, transient effects of second messenger activation. [http://hebb.mit.edu/courses/9.03/lecture4.html, ISBN:0582227089]
GO

Short term memory related to the storage, processing and recall of information required for the accomplishment of immediate cognitive tasks.
NCI

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gnathostomóza

Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.
MSH

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kraniální nervy – nemoci

Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
MSH

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ALKOLAREN ABUSU KRONIKOA

A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
MSH

For most adults, moderate alcohol use is not harmful. However, nearly 17.6 million adults in the United States are alcoholics or have alcohol problems. Alcoholism is a disease with four main features:

  • Craving – a strong need to drink
  • Loss of control – not being able to stop drinking once you`ve begun
  • Physical dependence – withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating or shakiness after stopping drinking
  • Tolerance – the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to get “high”

Alcoholism carries many serious dangers. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain and other organs. It can cause birth defects. It increases the risk of death from car crashes and other injuries as well as the risk of homicide and suicide.

NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


MEDLINEPLUS

a disorder characterized by a pathological pattern of alcohol use that causes a serious impairment in social or occupational functioning.
CSP

A chronic disease in which a person craves drinks that contain alcohol and is unable to control his or her drinking. A person with this disease also needs to drink greater amounts to get the same effect and has withdrawal symptoms after stopping alcohol use. Alcoholism affects physical and mental health, and can cause problems with family, friends, and work.
NCI

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komise pro péči o zvířata

Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
MSH

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záření – monitorování

The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
MSH

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menstruace

The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
MSH

Periodic discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus. From puberty until menopause, menstruation occurs about every 28 days when a woman is not pregnant.
NCI

The cyclic, physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and endometrial tissues from the nonpregnant uterus. [GOC:curators, PMID:8693059]
GO

Menstruation, or period, is a woman`s monthly bleeding. Every month, your body prepares for pregnancy. If no pregnancy occurs, the uterus sheds its lining. The menstrual blood is partly blood and partly tissue from inside the uterus, or womb. It passes out of the body through the vagina. Periods usually start around age 12 and continue until menopause, at about age 51. Most periods last from three to five days.

You should consult your health care provider if

  • You haven`t started menstruating by age 16
  • Your period suddenly stops
  • You bleed excessively, or for more days than usual
  • You suddenly feel sick after using tampons
  • You bleed between periods
  • You have severe pain during your period

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start before the period. It can include emotional and physical symptoms.

National Women`s Health Information Center


MEDLINEPLUS

menstruation
CHV

relating to period
CHV

The normal physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and mucosal tissues from the nonpregnant uterus. (MeSH)
NCI

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gossypol

A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
MSH

A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It comes from the seed of the cotton plant (Gossypium). It blocks the growth of cells and may kill cancer cells. Cottonseed meal toxin may also act as a male contraceptive (a type of birth control).
NCI

An orally-active polyphenolic aldehyde with potential antineoplastic activity. Derived primarily from unrefined cottonseed oil, gossypol induces cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. This agent also inhibits cell-signaling enzymes, resulting in inhibition of cell growth, and may act as a male contraceptive. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=505287&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=505287&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C529″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An orally-active polyphenolic aldehyde with potential antineoplastic activity. Derived primarily from unrefined cottonseed oil, gossypol induces cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. This agent also inhibits cell-signaling enzymes, resulting in inhibition of cell growth, and may act as a male contraceptive.
NCI

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kriminologie

The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
MSH

scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminals, and of penal treatment.
CSP

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alkaloidy

Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

organic nitrogenous bases; many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms.
CSP

A member of a large group of substances found in plants and in some fungi. Alkaloids contain nitrogen and can be made in the laboratory. Nicotine, caffeine, codeine, and vincristine are alkaloids. Some alkaloids, such as vincristine, are used to treat cancer.
NCI

A family or group of nitrogen-containing base compounds primarily derived from plant and animal sources. Many alkaloids are used medicinally, including cancer therapy.
NCI

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anomie

A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
MSH

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radioimunoprecipitační analýza

Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
MSH

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mersalyl

A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
MSH

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granulom laryngální

A tumor-like nodule or mass of inflammatory granulation tissue projecting into the lumen of the LARYNX.
MSH

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kryoglobuliny

Cryoglobulin: immunoglobulin which precipitates from serum when it is cooled below 37 degrees C.
AIR

Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
MSH

aberrant plasma proteins seen in multiple myeloma that precipitate, gel or crystallize at low temperatures and redissolve upon reaching body temperature.
CSP

An abnormal plasma protein that precipitates within the microvasculature on exposure to cold; microvasculature effects of cryoglobulinemia may result in restricted tissue blood flow, tissue hypoxia, and tissue necrosis.
NCI

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alylglycin

An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
MSH

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kyseliny anthranilové

Benzoic acids which are substituted with an amino group in the C-2 position.
MSH

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Rana

genus of frog; tailess amphibian with long hind legs adapted for jumping; lives in damp or aquatic environments.
CSP

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kovy – vrozené poruchy metabolismu

genetically determined biochemical disorders in metal absorption, metal excretion, metal transport, or incorporation of metal to protein or enzyme.
CSP

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inhibitory růstu

Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
MSH

endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of animals, plants, fungi, or their tissues, or the growth of microorganisms.
CSP

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kurikulum

A course of study offered by an educational institution.
MSH

regular and established course of study; courses offered by an educational institution; a set of courses constituting an area of specialization.
CSP

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Alphavirus

genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae; viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes.
CSP

A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
MSH

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protilátky heterofilní

Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens–i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response–is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
MSH

antibody produced by the introduction of heterophile antigen into a species which does not carry it.
CSP

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potkani Zucker

Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research–the “fatty” or obese and the lean. The “fatty” rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
MSH

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methallibur

A dithiobiurea compound with anti-gonadotropic activity.
MSH

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Guatemala

Central American country south of Mexico bordering on the Pacific and the Caribbean, capital city is Guatemala City.
CSP

A country in Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Honduras and Belize and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Honduras and Belize and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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cykloleucin

An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
MSH

a kind of amino acid
CHV

A synthetic amino acid derivative of cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, cycloleucine displays immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, and cytostatic properties. Believed to act in vivo as a valine antagonist and an NMDA receptor antagonist acting at the glycine site, cycloleucine is a competitive inhibitor of many enzymes, such as methionine adenosyltransferase (S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis). Toxicity is correlated with a block of nucleic acid methylation; cell cycle progression; and DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39200&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39200&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C404″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A non-metabolizable synthetic amino acid, formed through the cyclization of the amino acid leucine, with immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, and cytostatic activities. Cycloleucine competitively inhibits the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase, resulting in the inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis from methionine and ATP, and subsequent nucleic acid methylation and polyamine production; RNA, and perhaps to a lesser extent, DNA biosyntheses and cell cycle progression are finally disrupted. This agent is also a competitive inhibitor at the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
NCI

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sanitky

A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.
MSH

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antigenní variace

Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
MSH

Any process involved in the biological strategy of changing antigenic determinants on the surface that are exposed to another organism`s immune system. [GOC:mb]
GO

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Receptors, Corticosteroid

proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that specifically bind corticosteroids and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells.
CSP

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