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`Selfish DNA`

DNA whose role appears to be its own replication, e.g., transposable elements and some SATELLITE DNA.
MSH

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kolon – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
MSH

tumors or cancer of the colon, which is part of the large intestine from the cecum to the rectum.
CSP

A benign or malignant tumor involving the colon. — 2003
NCI

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oči – pohyby

Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
MSH

voluntary or reflex-controlled motion of the eye.
CSP

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osteopenie

decreased calcification, bone density, or bone mass due to inadequate osteoid synthesis.
CSP

Decreased calcification or density of bone tissue.
NCI

A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal bone mass or bone mineral density (the amount of bone mineral contained in a certain amount of bone). Osteopenia is a less severe form of bone loss than osteoporosis.
NCI

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kininy

A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman`s The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
MSH

any of a group of endogenous peptides which cause vasodilation and other changes associated with hypotension.
CSP

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seriová extrakce

The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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ductus choledochus – nádory

Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
MSH

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faktor VII

Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.
MSH

A clotting factor found in the serum. It combines with tissue factor (factor III) to activate factor X in the clotting pathway.
NCI

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ovarium – funkční testy

Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.
MSH

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Kuvajt

A country in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Serum total protein measurement

A quantitative measurement of the total amount of protein present in a sample of serum.
NCI

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systém komplementu – proteiny

system of serum proteins that interact with antigen antibody complex to produce cytolytic, chemotaxic, anaphylactic, and other effects.
CSP

One of a group of about 20 proteins that is found in the blood and is important in fighting infections and other diseases.
NCI

The complement system is a complex system of serum proteins that interact in a cascade. Many of the early components are serine proteases that activate each other sequentially. This complement system consists of three separate activation triggers: (1) Ab binding to a cell surface, (2) formation of immune complexes, and (3) a carbohydrate component of a microbe`s cell membrane. Along with this triggers, there are also two sets of mechanisms. Both of these mechanisms, classical pathway and alternative or properdin pathway, make MAC (Membrane Attack Complex), which can lyse and destroy the cell.
NCI

Any of the serum proteins that interact with antigen antibody complex to produce cytolytic, chemotaxic, anaphylactic, and other effects. (from CSP2000)
NCI

Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
MSH

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politika plánování rodičovství

A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
MSH

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oxidace-redukce

A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
MSH

A metabolic process that results in the removal or addition of one or more electrons to or from a substance, with or without the concomitant removal or addition of a proton or protons. [GOC:dhl, GOC:ecd, GOC:jh2, GOC:jid, GOC:mlg, GOC:rph]
GO

chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another.
CSP

All electron-transfer reactions are considered oxidation/reduction reactions. The substance gaining electrons (“oxidizing agent” or “oxidant”) is oxidizing the substance that is losing electrons (“reducing agent” or “reductant”). In the process, the “oxidizing agent” is itself reduced by the “reducing agent.” (from Electrochemistry Dictionary; http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/dict.htm)
NCI

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lac operon

The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
MSH

prokaryotic genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene; the regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: beta-galactosidase and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
CSP

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Sexuální masochismus

A disorder characterized by recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors involving the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer.
NCI

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komplement – klasická dráha

Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
MSH

The complement system is part of the defense against invading cells and is composed of about twenty different proteins found in the plasma. When activated, complement proteins form a pathway of proteolytic reactions that culminates in the lysis of foreign cells. The complement system also stimulates phagocytosis of foreign cells and an inflammatory response. There are two different complement systems, the classical complement pathway initiated by antibody complexes on the cell surface, and an alternative complement pathway that is initiated without antibodies. The complement system proteins are named with a capital C followed by a number. A small letter after the number indicates that the protein is a smaller protein resulting from the cleavage of a larger precursor by a protease. In the classical pathway, the first step is the initiation of the pathway triggered by recognition by complement factor C1 of antigen-antibody complexes on the cell surface. When C1 complex interacts with aggregates of IgG with antigen on a cell`s surface, two C1-associated proteases, C1r and C1s, are activated. Other factors like lipopolysaccharide also activate C1s. Once C1s is activated, it cleaves C4 to form C4b that then binds to the cell membrane of the cell being attacked. The proteolytic complement cascade is then amplified on the cell membrane through sequential cleavage of complement factors and recruitment of new factors until a cell surface complex containing C5b, C6, C7, and C8 is formed. The addition of a multiple C9 proteins creates the membrane attack complex results in a large pore that spans the membrane of the cell being attacked, allowing ions to flow freely between the cellular interior and exterior. Ions flow out, but large molecules stay in, causing water to flood into the cell and ultimately burst the cell from osmotic pressure.
NCI

sequential activation of complement, initiated by antigen-antibody complex and the binding of complement factor C1q to the Fc region of the antibody.
CSP

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tuky

The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

ester of glycerol with fatty acids; generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure; fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents; they occur in animal and vegetable tissue.
CSP

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oxytocin

A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
MSH

peptide hormone produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that induces contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus and the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland.
CSP

Oxytocin (125 aa, ~13kDa) is encoded by the human OXT gene. This protein plays a role in smooth muscle contraction in both the mammary gland and uterus. Oxytocin also is involved in maternal-newborn bonding, cognition and many other psychological and physiological processes.
NCI

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Laminaria

A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
MSH

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Shopeho virus papilomatózy králíků

infects cotton-tail rabbits, Sylvilagus floridanus, naturally; domestic rabbits can be infected by scarification; skin warts, which may become malignant, are produced.
CSP

The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.
MSH

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pochutiny

Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
MSH

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virus leukémie koček

A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
MSH

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párová vazba

In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
MSH

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laryngektomie

total or partial excision of the larynx.
CSP

An operation to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box).
NCI

Surgery to remove part or all of the larynx.
NCI

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Signal Peptides

N-terminal, hydrophobic sequences which mediate the attachment of newly translated polypeptide chains to intracellular membranes; in some membrane proteins the signal peptide remains as a permanent anchor, while in secretory proteins it is cleaved.
CSP

The N-terminal sequence of a secreted protein that interacts with a signal recognition particle and is required for transport through the cell membrane.
NCI

Highly hydrophobic amino acid sequences of proteins that must cross through membranes to arrive at their functioning cellular location (such as secreted and membrane proteins). They are 15 to 60 amino acids long and reside at the amino-terminus (leader signal peptides) or internally. By binding to signal recognition particles, these sequences direct nascent protein-ribosome complexes to a membrane where the protein is inserted during translation. Signal peptides direct translational uptake of the protein by various membranes -endoplamic reticulum, mitochondrial, chloroplast, peroxisomal, etc. Leader signal sequences on non-membrane proteins are ultimately removed by specific peptidases.
MSH

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konsangvinita

The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
MSH

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ferrichrom

A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
MSH

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beta-buňky

A cell that composes the bulk of the islets of Langerhans and secretes insulin.
NCI

A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
MSH

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olovo

A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
MSH

soft grayish blue metal with poisonous salts; symbol, Pb, atomic number 82.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Pb, atomic number 82, and atomic weight 207.2.
NCI

metal
CHV

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