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ledviny – vrozené poruchy tubulárního transportu

Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
MSH

genetically determined disorders of the reabsorptive functions of the kidney with regard to specific nephron segments responsible for specific transport functions, classifiable by proximal nephron function, loop of Henle function, and distal nephron function; transport defects can be selective or nonselective.
CSP

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erytrocyty

Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
MSH

red blood cells; mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing hemoglobin whose function is to transport oxygen.
CSP

A cell that carries oxygen to all parts of the body.
NCI

Cell specialized for oxygen transport, having a high concentration of hemoglobin in the cytoplasm and little else; biconcave, anucleate discs, 7nm diameter in mammals.
NCI

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ankylostomiáza

Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
MSH

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chalazion

A non-neoplastic cyst of the MEIBOMIAN GLANDS of the eyelid.
MSH

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ionofory

Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
MSH

molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers; there are two classes: carriers and channels; carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer; channels, like gramicidin, form continuous aqueous pores through the bilayer, allowing ions to diffuse through.
CSP

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metody výzkumu

Technique used in the laboratory for scientific research.
NCI

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ezofágoplastika

A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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chemie organická

The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

A branch of chemistry that deals specifically with the structures, synthesis and reactions of carbon-containing compounds.
NCI

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HESTE LODI SUMINKOR SINDROMEA

chronic noninflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain, altered bowel habits consisting of diarrhea or constipation or both, and no detectable pathologic change; a variant form is characterized by painless diarrhea; it is a common disorder with a psychophysiologic basis; called also spastic or irritable colon.
CSP

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a problem that affects the large intestine. It can cause abdominal cramping, bloating and a change in bowel habits. Some people with the disorder have constipation. Some have diarrhea. Some go back and forth between constipation and diarrhea. Although IBS can cause a great deal of discomfort, it does not harm the intestines.

IBS is a common disorder and happens more often in women than men. No one knows the exact cause of IBS. There is no specific test for IBS. However, your doctor may run tests to be sure you don`t have other diseases. These tests may include stool sampling tests, blood tests and x-rays. Your doctor may also do a test called a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Most people diagnosed with IBS can control their symptoms with diet, stress management and medicine.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A common syndrome manifested by symptoms of bloating, abdominal cramping, constipation, and/or diarrhea. In most patients the symptoms are not severe and they can be controlled with diet, stress, and lifestyle management. A small percentage of individuals may experience severe symptoms. The cause is unknown.
NCI

A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person`s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other.
NCI

A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
MSH

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dýchací systém – infekce

Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
MSH

invasion and growth of microorganisms in the respiratory system; may be clinically inapparent or result in local cellular injury.
CSP

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estrus – detekce

Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
MSH

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poruchy chování u dětí

Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
MSH

child behavior disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression.
CSP

All kids misbehave some times, but behavior disorders go beyond mischief and rebellion. With behavior disorders, your child or teen has a pattern of hostile, aggressive or disruptive behaviors for more than 6 months.

Warning signs can include

  • Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets
  • Damaging or destroying property
  • Lying or stealing
  • Not doing well in school, skipping school
  • Early smoking, drinking or drug use
  • Early sexual activity
  • Frequent tantrums and arguments
  • Consistent hostility towards authority figures

If you see signs of a problem, ask for help. Poor choices can become habits. Kids who have behavior problems are at higher risk for school failure, mental health problems and even suicide. Classes or family therapy may help parents learn to set and enforce limits.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration


MEDLINEPLUS

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isometrická kontrakce

Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
MSH

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retina – perforace

Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
MSH

A usually small tearing of the retina occurring when the vitreous separates from the retina. It may lead to retinal detachment. Symptoms include flashes and floaters.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a small laceration of the retina, this occurs when the vitreous separates from the retina. Symptoms include flashes and floaters.
NCI

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ethionin

2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
MSH

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Amerikanen van Chinese komaf

any person with Chinese ethnic background whose home or birthplace is in the Americas.
CSP

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žloutenka chronická idiopatická

A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestinal symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.
MSH

An inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of mild jaundice due to abnormalities in the bilirubin transportation from the liver parenchyma to the biliary system.
NCI

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Reyeův syndrom

A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
MSH

rare, acute, sometimes fatal disease of childhood, most often occurring as a sequel of varicella or a viral upper respiratory infection of childhood; marked by recurrent vomiting and elevated serum transaminase levels with distinctive changes in the liver and other viscera; an encephalopathic phase with acute brain swelling disturbances of consciousness and seizures may follow.
CSP

An acute and potentially fatal metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral edema, fatty liver and hypoglycemia. It occurs primarily in children and has been associated with the use of aspirin for the treatment of viral infections. However, it can also occur in the absence of aspirin use.
NCI

Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver and brain of someone who recently had a viral infection. It always follows another illness. Although it mostly affects children and teens, anyone can get it. It can develop quickly and without warning. It is most common during flu season. Symptoms include

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Listlessness
  • Personality change – such as irritability, combativeness or confusion
  • Delirium
  • Convulsions
  • Loss of consciousness

If these symptoms occur soon after a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, so quick diagnosis and treatment are critical. Treatment focuses on preventing brain damage. There is no cure.

The cause of Reye syndrome is unknown. However, studies have shown that taking aspirin increases the risk of getting it. Because of that, health care professionals now recommend other pain relievers for young patients.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A rare disease that damages the brain and liver and causes death if not treated. It occurs most often in children younger than 15 years who have had a fever-causing virus, such as chickenpox or flu. Taking aspirin during a viral illness may increase the risk of Reye syndrome.
NCI

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ethylmaleimid

A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
MSH

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chlormerodrin

A mercurial compound that has been used as a diuretic but is now superseded by more potent and less toxic drugs. The radiolabeled form has been used as a diagnostic and research tool.
MSH

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Jordánsko

A country in the Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Rhizobium

A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
MSH

A genus of aerobic, Gram negative, rod and cocci shaped bacterium assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Rhizobiaceae.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Rhizobium genus level.
NCI

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eutrofikace

The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
MSH

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chlorthalidon

A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.
MSH

A thiazide diuretic of the sulfamoylbenzamide class. Chlorthalidone directly inhibits sodium and chloride reabsorption on the luminal membrane of the early segment in the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. This leads to an increase in water, sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium secretion and a decrease in calcium and uric acid secretion. Chlorthalidone is used in the treatment of high blood pressure, edema and congestive heart failure.
NCI

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Kemerovo Virus

A serotype, in the species Great Island virus, of antigenically related tick-borne viruses found in Eastern Europe, Egypt, and Sudan.
MSH

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ribonukleotidy

Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

nucleotide in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose.
CSP

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exotoxiny

Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
MSH

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North Dakota

A state in the northern midwest United States. Its capital is Bismarck.
NCI

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cholestanony

CHOLESTANES substituted with any number of keto groups.
MSH

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ketoglutarátdehydrogenasový komplex

component of a multi-enzyme complex which decarboxylates alpha ketoglutarate to form succinyl coA in the Krebs` cycle.
CSP

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