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fibrinová pěna

A dry artificial sterile sponge of fibrin prepared by clotting with thrombin a foam or solution of fibrinogen. It is used in conjunction with thrombin as a hemostatic in surgery at sites where bleeding cannot be controlled by more common methods. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p648)
MSH

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biopsie

Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
MSH

removal and pathologic examination of tissue taken from the living body and performed to establish a more exact diagnosis.
CSP

The removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope or perform other tests on the cells or tissue. There are many different types of biopsy procedures. The most common types include: (1) incisional biopsy, in which only a sample of tissue is removed; (2) excisional biopsy, in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed; and (3) needle biopsy, in which a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle.
NCI

A biopsy is a procedure that removes a small piece of living tissue from your body. The tissue is examined with a microscope for signs of damage or disease. Biopsies can be done on all parts of the body. A biopsy is the only test that can tell for sure if a suspicious area is cancer. But biopsies are performed for many other reasons too.

There are different ways to do a biopsy. A needle biopsy removes tissue with a needle passed through your skin to the site of the problem. Other kinds of biopsies require surgery.


MEDLINEPLUS

The removal of tissue specimens or fluid from the living body for microscopic examination, performed to establish a diagnosis.
NCI

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potrat habituální

Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
MSH

spontaneous expulsion of a dead or non-viable fetus in 3 or more consecutive pregnancies at or about the same period of development.
CSP

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Leishmania major

intracellular parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous ulcer form of leishmaniasis; transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies; found in north and central Africa, Middle East, and southern Asia.
CSP

A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
MSH

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vztah dávky záření a odpovědi

The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
MSH

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propidium

Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
MSH

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figurální následný efekt

A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
MSH

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biuret

Used as feed supplement for sheep and cattle since it is a good non-protein nitrogen source. In strongly alkaline solution biuret gives a violet color with copper sulfate.
MSH

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úrazy – prevence

Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
MSH

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Leptospira interrogans sérovar canicola

A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose natural host is DOGS where disease is characterized by GASTROENTERITIS, and INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS.
MSH

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léky – způsoby aplikace

The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
MSH

various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed and delivered to the target tissue.
CSP

Designation of the part of the body through which or into which, or the way in which, the medicinal product is intended to be introduced. In some cases a medicinal product can be intended for more than one route and/or method of administration. (ICH)
NCI

The course by which a substance was administered in order to reach the site of action in the body.
NCI

The path the administered medication takes to get into the body or into contact with the body.


HL7V3.0

Description:This describes which path the administered medication takes to get into the body or into contact with the body and constitutes part of thewhere (the other part being site – see below). It is theway in or the course the medication must take to get to its destination.

Note that a path is in no sense a description of afinal destination; it is a stylized description of the path taken. For example, an oral antibiotic may be used to treat a severe infection on a toe; the oral route is used to get the medicine to be able to reach and treat the infection in the toe. For some specific routes of administration there may be an incidental sense offinal destination, for example an ocular administration usually occurs when treatment of an eye condition is required. However, this is in no sense definitional: rectal administration of a medicine may be for a local effect (a steroid foam for treatment of colitis) or for a systemic effect (metronidazole for treatment of infection). The route of administration of a medicine should only be a description of the path taken and not the form.

Examples:

  • oral

  • rectal

  • intravenous (IV)

  • subcutaneous (SC)

  • intramuscular (IM)


HL7V3.0

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prostaglandinové endoperoxidy

Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
MSH

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rybí jedy

Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
MSH

poison produced by fish, toxic to other living organisms.
CSP

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blefarospazmus

Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
MSH

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kyselina octová

Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

A synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism.
NCI

An acid found in vinegar. Acetic acid is also used to dissolve substances needed to make some medicines and other products, such as plastics.
NCI

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leukémie megakaryoblastická akutní

An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.
MSH

An acute myeloid leukemia in which at least 50% of the blasts are of megakaryocytic lineage. The prognosis is usually poor. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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léky – toxicita

Manifestations of the adverse effects of drugs administered therapeutically or in the course of diagnostic techniques. It does not include accidental or intentional poisoning for which specific headings are available.
MSH

An adverse effect of a drug used therapeutically or diagnostically.
NCI

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ochranné prostředky

Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
MSH

equipment specifically designed to enhance the safety of procedures, work environments, or other equipment; e.g., seat belts, air bags, radiation shields, noise mufflers, air filtering systems, etc.
CSP

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záplavy

Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
MSH

Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms or hurricanes can cause flooding. Flooding can also happen when a river or stream overflows its bank, when a levee is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path.

Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a flood, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses.

Federal Emergency Management Agency


MEDLINEPLUS

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krevní tlak

PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
MSH

force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries and other vessels.
CSP

The pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels.
NCI

The force of circulating blood on the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure is taken using two measurements: systolic (measured when the heart beats, when blood pressure is at its highest) and diastolic (measured between heart beats, when blood pressure is at its lowest). Blood pressure is written with the systolic blood pressure first, followed by the diastolic blood pressure (for example 120/80).
NCI

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acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamin

Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.
MSH

A naturally occurring component of bacterial cell walls that has the capacity to activate macrophages.
NCI

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leukodystrofie metachromatická

An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.
MSH

autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of cerebroside sulfatase leading to an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate in the nervous system and other organs.
CSP

An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities in the development of the myelin sheaths. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A. There are three forms of this disease: late infantile, juvenile, and adult. In the late infantile form symptoms include muscle weakness and rigidity, gait disturbances, developmental delays, and seizures. In the juvenile form symptoms include gait disturbances, mental deterioration and seizures. The adult form is characterized by psychotic symptoms and dementia.
NCI

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dursban

An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
MSH

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Proteus vulgaris

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Proteus vulgaris.
NCI

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fluoridy

Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
MSH

A form of the element fluorine that helps prevent tooth decay. Fluoride may be naturally present in drinking water or may be added to it. Fluoride may also be put directly on the teeth, as a gel, toothpaste, or a rinse.
NCI

Fluorine ion requiring removal of one electron to return to its elemental state.
NCI

Considered a trace element, fluoride is any combination of elements containing the fluorine atom in the -1 oxidation state (fluoride ion). Due to its reactivity, fluorine is found in nature as fluorine compounds or fluorides. Fluoride inhibits various enzyme systems, erythrocyte glycolysis and binds Ca++, causing anticoagulation and other toxic effects. In addition, fluoride is a mitogen for osteoblasts and stimulates bone formation. (NCI)
NCI

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virus katarální horečky ovcí

The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
MSH

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aklarubicin

An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.
MSH

An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39131&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39131&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C202″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
NCI

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knihovnické služby

Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.
MSH

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dystonia musculorum deformans

A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)
MSH

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pseudogeny

Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
MSH

inactive but stable components of the genome derived from mutations of ancestral genes; probably account for a significant amount of the so-called “junk DNA” that comprises most of the genome of eukaryotes.
CSP

Nonfunctional DNA sequences that are very similar to the sequences of known genes. Many seem to have arisen as functional gene duplications that subsequently underwent mutation and loss of function. Others are structurally similar to mRNA and seem to have arisen by a reverse transcription event followed by integration into the genome. Some pseudogenes are transcribed and may play a role in regulation of its homologous gene.
NCI

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