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ampicilin

semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
CSP

A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam penicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ampicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Ampicillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, therefore, can be used in wide range of gram-positive and -negative infections.
NCI

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Cercopithecus aethiops

A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannas of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
MSH

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dávkové mechanismy

Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
MSH

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hemolytická plaková technika

A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
MSH

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rohovka

The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior.
CSP

The transparent part of the eye that covers the iris and the pupil and allows light to enter the inside.
NCI

A dome-shaped, transparent, avascular tissue covering the front of the eye. It is composed of five layers: squamous epithelium, Bowman`s membrane, stroma, Descemet`s membrane, and endothelium. Refraction of light contributing to eye`s focusing ability is its characteristic function. It contains unmyelinated nerve endings which are responsible for the high sensitivity of the tissue. (NCI)
NCI

A dome-shaped, transparent, avascular tissue covering the front of the eye. It is composed of five layers: squamous epithelium, Bowman`s membrane, stroma, Descemet`s membrane, and endothelium. Refraction of light contributing to eye`s focusing ability is its characteristic function. It contains unmyelinated nerve endings which are responsible for the high sensitivity of the tissue.
NCI

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analeptika

A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
MSH

Any agent capable of having a stimulating effect on the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation.
CSP

In medicine, a family of drugs used to treat depression, attention-deficit disorder (a common disorder in which children are inattentive, impulsive, and/or over-active), and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleepiness). Stimulants increase brain activity, alertness, attention, and energy. They also raise blood pressure and increase heart rate and breathing rate.
NCI

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androstendion

A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
MSH

delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced in the testes, ovaries and adrenal cortex and can serve as a precursor to testosterone as well as estrone and estradiol.
CSP

a kind of male sex hormone
CHV

A steroid hormone synthesized by the adrenal glands and the gonads from either 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone and is a precursor of testosterone.
NCI

A potent androgenic prohormone that is a direct precursor of testosterone and used as a supplement to increase plasma testosterone levels and muscle anabolism. (NCI)
NCI

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Maroko

A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
MSH

A country in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ledviny – vrozené poruchy tubulárního transportu

Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
MSH

genetically determined disorders of the reabsorptive functions of the kidney with regard to specific nephron segments responsible for specific transport functions, classifiable by proximal nephron function, loop of Henle function, and distal nephron function; transport defects can be selective or nonselective.
CSP

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heparin – antagonisté

Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.
MSH

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Cortinarius

A genus of mushrooms in the family Cortinariaceae. When ingested, species of Cortinarius cause delayed acute RENAL FAILURE.
MSH

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ankylostomiáza

Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
MSH

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anestézie celková

state of total unconsciousness resulting from anesthetic drugs.
CSP

Actions that render a patient unconscious for the purpose of performing a diagnostic or interventional procedure.
NCI

A temporary loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep. It is caused by special drugs or other substances called anesthetics. General anesthesia keeps patients from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures.
NCI

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motorické dovednosti – poruchy

Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
MSH

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metody výzkumu

Technique used in the laboratory for scientific research.
NCI

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hepatitida virová zvířat

INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
MSH

not restricted to hepatitis caused by hepatitis viruses; use also for hepatitis caused by other viruses in animals.
CSP

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poradenství

The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
MSH

the use of psychological methods in testing the interests of and giving professional guidance to individuals.
CSP

The act of receiving professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems.
NCI

The process by which a professional counselor helps a person cope with mental or emotional distress, and understand and solve personal problems.
NCI

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balónková angioplastika

Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
MSH

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mukopolysacharidóza III

Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by heparitin sulfate in the urine, progressive mental retardation, mild dwarfism, and other skeletal disorders. There are four clinically indistinguishable but biochemically distinct forms, each due to a deficiency of a different enzyme.
MSH

mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by heparin sulfate in the urine, progressive mental retardation, mild dwarfism, and other skeletal disorders.
CSP

A rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease affecting the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides. Signs and symptoms include behavioral changes, sleep disorders, mental developmental delays, and seizures.
NCI

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dýchací systém – infekce

Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
MSH

invasion and growth of microorganisms in the respiratory system; may be clinically inapparent or result in local cellular injury.
CSP

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HERPES SINPLEXA( ESKL. BEGIA F85; GENITALA X90, Y72)

A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
MSH

infection caused by the herpes simplex virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes.
CSP

Herpes is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. Genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). It affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes infections can affect the eyes, skin, or other parts of the body. The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in people with weak immune systems.

There are two types of HSV:

  • HSV type 1 most commonly causes cold sores. It can also cause genital herpes.
  • HSV type 2 is the usual cause of genital herpes, but it also can infect the mouth.

HSV spreads direct contact. Some people have no symptoms. Others get sores near the area where the virus has entered the body. They turn into blisters, become itchy and painful, and then heal.

Most people have outbreaks several times a year. Over time, you get them less often. Medicines to help your body fight the virus can help lessen symptoms and decrease outbreaks.


MEDLINEPLUS

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kreatinkinasa – forma MB

An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.
MSH

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zvířata transgenní

Experimental organism whose genome has been altered by the transfer of a gene or genes from another species or breed.
NCI

Animals, or the offspring of such animals, into which cloned genetic material has been experimentally transferred by microinjection of foreign DNA, either directly or into embryos or differentiated cell types.
MSH

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Muridae

A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
MSH

Taxonomic family which includes mice, rats, and gerbils.
NCI

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retina – perforace

Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
MSH

A usually small tearing of the retina occurring when the vitreous separates from the retina. It may lead to retinal detachment. Symptoms include flashes and floaters.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a small laceration of the retina, this occurs when the vitreous separates from the retina. Symptoms include flashes and floaters.
NCI

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hexestrol

A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
MSH

A synthetic hydrogenated derivative of diethylstilbestrol (DES). Hexestrol exhibits strong affinity for estrogen receptors that are overexpressed in some types of cancers. When conjugated with a neoplastic drug, hexestrol may selectively concentrate the cytotoxic agent in estrogen receptor-rich tumors. This agent may also be mutagenic. (NCI04)
NCI

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crossing over (genetika)

reciprocal exchange of material between homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis and is responsible for genetic recombination.
CSP

The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
MSH

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Antazoline Phosphate

The phosphate salt of antazoline, an ethylenediamine derivative with histamine H1 antagonistic and sedative properties. Antazoline antagonizes histamine H1 receptor and prevents the typical allergic symptoms caused by histamine activities on capillaries, skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal and bronchial smooth muscles. These histamine activities include vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, pain, itching, and spasmodic contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Antazoline is used to provide symptomatic relieve of allergic symptoms.
NCI

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hořčičné sloučeniny

Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
MSH

strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups; although structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA; they are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents; use this term to cover the chemical warfare agent mustard gas.
CSP

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Reyeův syndrom

A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
MSH

rare, acute, sometimes fatal disease of childhood, most often occurring as a sequel of varicella or a viral upper respiratory infection of childhood; marked by recurrent vomiting and elevated serum transaminase levels with distinctive changes in the liver and other viscera; an encephalopathic phase with acute brain swelling disturbances of consciousness and seizures may follow.
CSP

An acute and potentially fatal metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral edema, fatty liver and hypoglycemia. It occurs primarily in children and has been associated with the use of aspirin for the treatment of viral infections. However, it can also occur in the absence of aspirin use.
NCI

Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver and brain of someone who recently had a viral infection. It always follows another illness. Although it mostly affects children and teens, anyone can get it. It can develop quickly and without warning. It is most common during flu season. Symptoms include

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Listlessness
  • Personality change – such as irritability, combativeness or confusion
  • Delirium
  • Convulsions
  • Loss of consciousness

If these symptoms occur soon after a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, so quick diagnosis and treatment are critical. Treatment focuses on preventing brain damage. There is no cure.

The cause of Reye syndrome is unknown. However, studies have shown that taking aspirin increases the risk of getting it. Because of that, health care professionals now recommend other pain relievers for young patients.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A rare disease that damages the brain and liver and causes death if not treated. It occurs most often in children younger than 15 years who have had a fever-causing virus, such as chickenpox or flu. Taking aspirin during a viral illness may increase the risk of Reye syndrome.
NCI

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