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forbol-12,13-dibutyrát

A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
MSH

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klofibrát

A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)
MSH

fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia and hypertriglyceridemia.
CSP

An aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42108&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42108&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C378″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols.
NCI

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legální poručníci

A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.
MSH

An individual who is authorized under applicable State or local law to consent on behalf of a child or incapable person to general medical care including participation in clinical research.
NCI

An individual who is authorized under applicable State or local law to consent on behalf of a child or incapable person to general medical care including participation in clinical research. (NCI)
NCI

The role played by a person or institution legally empowered with responsibility for the care of a ward.


HL7V3.0

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studenti lékařství

Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
MSH

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fibrinolýza

The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.
MSH

natural enzymatic dissolution of fibrin.
CSP

An ongoing process that solubilizes fibrin, chiefly by the proteolytic action of plasmin, resulting in the removal of small blood clots. [GOC:jl, PMID:15842654]
GO

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fosfoglycerátkinasa

An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
MSH

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Paličkovité prsty

An enlargement of the tips of the fingers or toes and a change in the angle where the nails emerge. It occurs when the amount of soft tissue beneath the nail beds increases. It may be idiopathic, hereditary, or associated with a wide range of diseases, including cardiopulmonary disorders and malignant neoplasms.
NCI

An abnormal enlargement of the terminal phalanges accompanied by increased length-wise curvature of the nails, giving the digits a club-like appearance. Clubbing has been noted with a wide variety of conditions, including pulmonary and cardiac diseases, liver disorders, and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
NCI

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volný čas – činnosti

Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.
MSH

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subfrenický absces

Accumulation of purulent EXUDATES beneath the DIAPHRAGM, also known as upper abdominal abscess. It is usually associated with PERITONITIS or postoperative infections.
MSH

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filipin

A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
MSH

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fosforylace

The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
MSH

metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.
CSP

The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group from ATP via the action of a kinase.
NCI

A process in which a phosphate group is added to a molecule, such as a sugar or a protein.
NCI

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švábi

Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
MSH

insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
CSP

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Leschův-Nyhanův syndrom

An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
MSH

rare x-linked disorder of purine metabolism, due to deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase; affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures; self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently; intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe; elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis.
CSP

An X-linked inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, resulting in accumulation of uric acid in the body. It affects males and is characterized by neurologic defects, moderate mental retardation, muscle hypotonia, and a tendency for self-mutilation (self-biting of lips, tongue, and fingertips).
NCI

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cukerné alkoholy

Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

all sugars are alcohols by virtue of their hydroxy groups, but this term applies to those which have gained a hydroxy group by reduction of a keto or acid group.
CSP

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fixativa

Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
MSH

A compound that fixes tissues and cells for microscopic study.
NCI

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Physarum

A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.
MSH

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nízká teplota

Having less heat energy than the object against which it is compared; the absence of heat.
NCI

An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
MSH

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leukémie myeloidní chronická BCR-ABL pozitivní

chronic leukemia in which myeloid progenitor cells predominate; the hallmark of CML, the Philadelphia chromosome, is a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 which activates the proto- oncogene c-abl.
CSP

A slowly progressing disease in which too many white blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
NCI

Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
MSH

A chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the expression of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. It presents with neutrophilic leukocytosis. It can appear at any age, but it mostly affects middle aged and older individuals. Patients usually present with fatigue, weight loss, anemia, night sweats, and splenomegaly. If untreated, it follows a biphasic or triphasic natural course; an initial indolent chronic phase which is followed by an accelerated phase, a blast phase, or both. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation and imatinib therapy delay disease progression and prolong overall survival.
NCI

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. These cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there are too many of a specific type of white blood cell called a granulocyte.

Sometimes CML does not cause any symptoms at all. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Feeling very tired
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Fever
  • Pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left side

Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow diagnose CML. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, infusion of donated white blood cells following stem cell transplants, immune therapy, or surgery to remove the spleen.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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lyasy štěpící vazby C-S

Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
MSH

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Stroomschema`s (computer)

A diagram that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure or system especially using connecting lines and a set of conventional symbols.
NCI

A diagram that shows the order of steps in a complex process.
NCI

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fytochrom

A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
MSH

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zlato koloidní

A suspension of metallic gold particles.
MSH

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leukoplakie orální

A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
MSH

white patch seen on the oral mucosa; considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced.
CSP

A white patch or plaque on oral mucosa that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. The diagnosis of leukoplakia is one of exclusion; other conditions such as candidiasis, lichen planus, leukoedema, etc. must be ruled out before a diagnosis of leukoplakia can be made. Leukoplakia may be a premalignant condition.
NCI

A white patch or plaque on oral cavity mucosa that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. The diagnosis of leukoplakia is one of exclusion; other conditions such as candidiasis, lichen planus, leukoedema, etc. must be ruled out before a diagnosis of leukoplakia can be made. Leukoplakia may be a premalignant condition. –2004
NCI

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sulpirid

A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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fluorokarbony

Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
MSH

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pinealom

Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud`s syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)
MSH

new abnormal pineal body tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A neoplasm arising from the pineocyte, a cell with photosensory and neuroendocrine functions. It may be composed of mature elements or primitive, immature cells. The cellular composition determines the biological behavior and clinical outcome. Three types are recognized: pineoblastoma, pineocytoma, and pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (Adapted from WHO.)
NCI

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KOMA

A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
MSH

profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused; coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem.
CSP

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness. An individual in a coma is alive but unable to move or respond to his or her environment. Coma may occur as a complication of an underlying illness, or as a result of injuries, such as head trauma.

A coma rarely lasts more than 2 to 4 weeks. The outcome for coma depends on the cause, severity, and site of the damage. People may come out of a coma with physical, intellectual, and psychological problems. Some people may remain in a coma for years or even decades. For those people, the most common cause of death is infection, such as pneumonia.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A condition in which a patient is in a state of deep sleep and cannot be awakened. A coma may be caused by many things, including trauma, drugs, toxins, or certain diseases.
NCI

A state of profound unconsciousness associated with markedly depressed cerebral activity. Causes include central nervous system damage, intoxication, and metabolic abnormalities.
NCI

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licence

The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
MSH

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povrchové vlastnosti

Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
MSH

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folklór

The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.
MSH

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