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Norsko

A country in Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ORBAINAREN ENDAKATZEA

deterioration of the macula lutea in the retina; may be inherited, drug induced, or due to aging; leads to a severe loss of central vision while peripheral vision is retained.
CSP

Macular degeneration, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older. It is a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision. You need central vision to see objects clearly and to do tasks such as reading and driving.

AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. It does not hurt, but it causes cells in the macula to die. In some cases, AMD advances so slowly that people notice little change in their vision. In others, the disease progresses faster and may lead to a loss of vision in both eyes. Regular comprehensive eye exams can detect macular degeneration before the disease causes vision loss. Treatment can slow vision loss. It does not restore vision.

NIH: National Eye Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

deterioration of the eye part called macula lutea of the retina
CHV

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prstencové chromozómy

Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
MSH

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gastroenterostomie

A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
MSH

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cholesterol

The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
MSH

C27H46O, the major fatty steroid alcohol of vertebrate animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
CSP

Lipid composed of 27 carbon atoms which form three fused cycloheane (6-carbon) rings, a cyclopentane (5-carbon ring) and a side chain of 8 carbon atoms. (Ensminger et al).
NCI

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can stick to the walls of your arteries. This is called plaque. Plaque can narrow your arteries or even block them.

High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart disease. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high blood cholesterol, but it can be detected with a blood test. You are likely to have high cholesterol if members of your family have it, if you are overweight or if you eat a lot of fatty foods.

You can lower your cholesterol by exercising more and eating more fruits and vegetables. You also may need to take medicine to lower your cholesterol.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver, and found in the blood and in all cells of the body. Cholesterol is important for good health and is needed for making cell walls, tissues, hormones, vitamin D, and bile acid. Cholesterol also comes from eating foods taken from animals such as egg yolks, meat, and whole-milk dairy products. Too much cholesterol in the blood may build up in blood vessel walls, block blood flow to tissues and organs, and increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
NCI

An animal sterol found in the body tissues (and blood plasma) of vertebrates. It can be found in large concentrations within the liver, spinal cord, and brain. Cholesterol is an important component of the membranes of cells, providing stability. It is the major precursor for the synthesis of vitamin D, of the various steroid hormones, including cortisol, cortisone, and aldosterone in the adrenal glands, and of the sex hormones progesterone, estrogen, and testosterone. Cholesterol also has an important role for the brain synapses as well as in the immune system. In conditions featuring elevated low density lipoproteins (LDL), cholesterol often forms plaque deposits in the walls of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which is a major contributor to coronary heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease.
NCI

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Nucleic Acid Hybridization

zipping reaction between complementary DNA or RNA single strands to form a duplex (double stranded) molecule; basis of many techniques for assaying nucleic acid sequence complementarity.
CSP

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malárie mozková

A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
MSH

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RNA ribozomální 16S

Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
MSH

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exprese genu

The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
MSH

the phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of gene action.
CSP

The process in which a gene`s sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form. [GOC:dph, GOC:tb]
GO

The process by which a gene gets turned on in a cell to make RNA and proteins. Gene expression may be measured by looking at the RNA, or the protein made from the RNA, or what the protein does in a cell.
NCI

Typically involves transcription of genetically encoded information into an intermediary message (messenger RNA) and subsequent translation into a functional protein.
NCI

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chondrosarkom

A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A type of cancer that forms in bone cartilage. It usually starts in the pelvis (between the hip bones), the shoulder, the ribs, or at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs. A rare type of chondrosarcoma called extraskeletal chondrosarcoma does not form in bone cartilage. Instead, it forms in the soft tissues of the upper part of the arms and legs. Chondrosarcoma can occur at any age but is more common in people older than 40 years. It is a type of bone cancer.
NCI

A malignant tumor with pure hyaline cartilage differentiation. Myxoid changes, calcification and ossification may be present.
NCI

A malignant mesenchymal tumor arising from cartilage-forming tissues involving the bones. It affects middle-aged to elderly adults, and the pelvic bones, ribs, shoulder girdle, and long bones are the most common sites of involvement. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion.
NCI

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zdravotní sestry

Professionals qualified by education at an accredited school of nursing and licensed by state law to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
MSH

professionals qualified by education at an accredited school of nursing and licensed by state law to practice nursing; provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
CSP

A health professional trained to care for people who are ill or disabled.
NCI

A professional healthcare provider who has graduated from an accredited nursing program, has passed the state exam for licensure, and been registered or licensed to practice by a state authority. Nurses are educationally prepared as functional (LPN/LVN) or professional (RN).
NCI

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arteriae thoracicae internae

Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
MSH

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2H-benzo(a)chinolizin-2-ol, 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy-

Proposed catecholamine depletor.
MSH

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generalizace – stimulus

The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
MSH

tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
CSP

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chromatin

The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
MSH

complex of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins comprising eukaryotic chromosomes.
CSP

The genetic material of the nucleus, consisting of deoxyribonucleoprotein, which occurs in two forms during the phase between mitotic divisions: 1) as heterochromatin, seen as condensed, readily stainable clumps; 2) as euchromatin, dispersed lightly staining or nonstaining material. During mitotic division the chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
NCI

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výživa a metabolismus – nemoci

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances.
MSH

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mannitolfosfáty

Phosphoric acid esters of mannitol.
MSH

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rotenon

A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
MSH

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genetické inženýrství

Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
MSH

The technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.
NCI

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chromozómy

In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

in a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell; the bacterial chromosome is a closed circle of double stranded DNA associated with the cell membrane; nuclear chromosomes are associated with RNA, histones and non histone proteins; the normal number of chromosomes in human somatic cells is 46.
CSP

Discrete physical structures inside a cell nucleus that consist of proteins and DNA organized into genes.
NCI

Part of a cell that contains genetic information. Except for sperm and eggs, all human cells contain 46 chromosomes.
NCI

A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information. [ISBN:0198547684]
GO

Organelle part which consists of nucleotides arranged linearly into three regions, DNA replication origin, centromere and telomere. Examples: nuclear chromosome, sex chromosome.
FMA

One of the bodies in the cell nucleus that is the bearer of genes, has the form of a delicate chromatin filament during interphase, contracts to form a compact cylinder segmented into two arms by the centromere during metaphase and anaphase stages of cell division, and is capable of reproducing its physical and chemical structure through successive cell divisions.
NCI

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dermatitida z povolání

A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
MSH

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mořská biologie

The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
MSH

branch of biology that deals with living organisms that inhabit the sea.
CSP

The study of organisms that live in the sea or in other bodies of water.
NCI

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Rwanda

A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
MSH

A country in Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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geologie

The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

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chromozómy lidské, pár 9

A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the ninth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 9 spans about 145 million base pairs of nucleic acids and represents between 4 and 4.5% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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dens axis

The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.
MSH

A bony tooth-like process projecting from the second cervical vertebra. It serves as the structure that supports the rotation of the first cervical vertebra.
NCI

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mastektomie subkutánní

Excision of breast tissue with preservation of overlying skin, nipple, and areola so that breast form may be reconstructed.
MSH

A surgical procedure that removes the breast tissue while leaving the skin, nipple, and areola intact.
NCI

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Saline Solution

any aqueous salt solution; usually means normal or physiological saline, which is 0.9% sodium chloride, and is used as a base for culture media and buffers, and as an injection vehicle or control.
CSP

A solution of salt and water.
NCI

A solution of salt and water. Saline usually refers to normal or physiological saline, which is an aqueous solution containing 0.9% sodium chloride.
NCI

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hyperplazie velkých lymfatických uzlin

Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
MSH

A rare disorder in which growths that are benign (not cancer) develop in lymph node tissue.
NCI

A disorder characterized by lymphoid hyperplasia in the lymph nodes. There are two histologic variants recognized: the hyaline-vascular type and the plasma cell type. In the hyaline vascular type there are hyalinized vessels present in the lymphoid follicles. In the plasma cell type there is pronounced plasma cell proliferation. Clinically, the disease may be localized; manifested with localized lymphadenopathy, or multicentric; manifested with generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, organomegaly, and sometimes POEMS syndrome. In contrast to patients with localized disease who are usually cured following resection of the lesion, patients with the multicentric form of the disease may follow a progressive clinical course, complicated by infection, Kaposi sarcoma or lymphoma.
NCI

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cinnarizin

A piperazine derivative having histamine H1-receptor and calcium-channel blocking activity with vasodilating and antiemetic properties but it induces PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS.
MSH

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