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kultura

A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
MSH

collective expression for behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols; includes customs, traditions, and language.
CSP

The beliefs, values, and behaviors that are shared within a group, such as a religious group or a nation. Culture includes language, customs, and beliefs about roles and relationships.
NCI

A pattern of learned beliefs, values, and behavior that are shared within a group. It includes language, styles of communication, practices, customs, and views on roles and relationships.
NCI

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Španělsko

Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
MSH

A country in Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Spain


HL7V3.0

A country in Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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antibiotika antifungální

Antibiotics inhibiting the growth of or killing fungi and used in the treatment of various fungal diseases.
MSH

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Lymfangiogram

An x-ray study of the lymphatic system. A dye is injected into a lymphatic vessel and travels throughout the lymphatic system. The dye outlines the lymphatic vessels and organs on the x-ray.
NCI

An x-ray of the lymphatic system. A dye is injected into a lymphatic vessel and travels throughout the lymphatic system. The dye outlines the lymphatic vessels and organs on the x-ray.
NCI

The examination of the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels following the injection of a radiopaque substance.
NCI

An x-ray image of the lymphatic system using a radiopaque imaging agent.
NCI

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penis – indurace

A condition characterized by hardening of the PENIS due to the formation of fibrous plaques on the dorsolateral aspect of the PENIS, usually involving the membrane (tunica albuginea) surrounding the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis). This may eventually cause a painful deformity of the shaft or constriction of the urethra, or both.
MSH

Fibromatosis arising from the soft tissues of the penis. It is characterized by the presence of spindle-shaped fibroblasts, and an infiltrative growth pattern. It causes the penis to bend when it becomes erect.
NCI

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teorie her

Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making “players,” who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other`s decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players` decisions.
MSH

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cyklizace

Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
MSH

chemical reaction that causes parts of a molecule to join so that a ring of atoms is formed within the molecule.
CSP

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hmotnostní spektrometrie

identification of a substance by sorting a stream of ions according to their mass; commonly by deflecting the stream of charged particles in a magnetic field.
CSP

An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
MSH

An analytical technique wherein ions are separate according to their ratio of charge to mass. From the mass spectrum produced, the atomic weight of the particle can be deduced.
NCI

An analytical technique wherein ions are separate according to their ratio of charge to mass. From the mass spectrum produced, the atomic weight of the particle can be deduced. (North American Lake Management Society Lake Word Glossary)
NCI

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antiemetika

Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
MSH

drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting; act by a wide range of mechanisms; some act on the medullary control centers while others effect the peripheral receptors.
CSP

A drug that prevents or reduces nausea and vomiting.
NCI

Drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting. Antiemetics act by a wide range of mechanisms. Some act on the medullary control centers (the vomiting center and the chemoreceptive trigger zone) while others affect the peripheral receptors. (MeSH)
NCI

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Lyngbya – toxiny

Toxins isolated from any species of the seaweed Lyngbya or similar chemicals from other sources, including mollusks and micro-organisms. These have been found to be potent tumor promoters. They are biosynthesized from TRYPTOPHAN; VALINE; and METHIONINE nonribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT).
MSH

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peptichemio

A mixture of six synthetic oligopeptides, each containing MELPHALAN. It is used as a broad-spectrum antineoplastic due to its alkylating and antimetabolic actions but, is toxic to bone marrow, gastrointestinal system and vasculature.
MSH

A mixture of six synthetic oligopeptides in which the peptides are conjugated to metamelphalan, with alkylating and potential antineoplastic activity. Peptichemio causes crosslinking of DNA, thereby preventing DNA replication and eventually cellular proliferation.
NCI

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Gardnerův syndrom

A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.
MSH

A variant of familiar adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple colonic polyps predisposing to carcinoma of the colon, osteomas of the skull, epidermoid cysts, and fibromas. It is associated with mutation of the APC gene.
NCI

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Kypr

An island republic in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital is Nicosia. It was colonized by the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks and ruled successively by the Assyrian, Persian, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. It was under various countries from the 12th to the 20th century but became independent in 1960. The name comes from the Greek Kupros, probably representing the Sumerian kabar or gabar, copper, famous in historic times for its copper mines. The cypress tree is also named after the island. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p308 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p134)
MSH

An island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey. (NCI)
NCI

An island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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spermatocyty

Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
MSH

Male germ cells derived from spermatogonia and developing into spermatids. (MeSH)
NCI

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Antigua a Barbuda

Islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico. (NCI)
NCI

Islands in the Lesser Antilles, within the Leeward Islands. ANTIGUA, BARBUDA, and Redonda, an uninhabited island, constitute the independent state of ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA. The capital is St. Johns.
MSH

Islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ORBAINAREN ENDAKATZEA

deterioration of the macula lutea in the retina; may be inherited, drug induced, or due to aging; leads to a severe loss of central vision while peripheral vision is retained.
CSP

Macular degeneration, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older. It is a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision. You need central vision to see objects clearly and to do tasks such as reading and driving.

AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. It does not hurt, but it causes cells in the macula to die. In some cases, AMD advances so slowly that people notice little change in their vision. In others, the disease progresses faster and may lead to a loss of vision in both eyes. Regular comprehensive eye exams can detect macular degeneration before the disease causes vision loss. Treatment can slow vision loss. It does not restore vision.

NIH: National Eye Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

deterioration of the eye part called macula lutea of the retina
CHV

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perfúze

artificial pumping of a fluid through a tissue or organ via blood vessels, especially to supply drugs or nutrients; for the concept of pumping of one`s own blood through artificial means use EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION.
CSP

Bathing an organ or tissue with a fluid. In regional perfusion, a specific area of the body (usually an arm or a leg) receives high doses of anticancer drugs through a blood vessel. Such a procedure is performed to treat cancer that has not spread.
NCI

The injection of fluid into a blood vessel
CHV

The process of flooding fluid through the artery to saturate the surrounding tissue. In regional perfusion, a specific area of the body (usually an arm or a leg) is targeted and high doses of anticancer drugs are flooded through the artery to reach the surrounding tissue and kill as many cancer cells as possible. Such a procedure is performed in cases where the cancer is not thought to have spread past a localized area.
NCI

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gastroenterostomie

A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
MSH

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cystostomie

Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.
MSH

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nádory míchy

Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
MSH

Cancer that begins in the spinal column (backbone) or spinal cord. The spinal column is made up of linked bones, called vertebrae. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae. Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.
NCI

A primary or metastatic neoplasm affecting the spinal cord.
NCI

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antistreptolysin

Antibodies specific to STREPTOLYSINS which indicate STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
MSH

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malárie mozková

A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
MSH

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parodontální absces

Localized circumscribed purulent area of inflammation in the periodontal tissue. It is a derivative of marginal periodontitis and commonly associated with suprabony and infrabony pockets and interradicular involvements, in contrast to periapical abscess which is attributable to pulp necrosis.
MSH

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exprese genu

The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
MSH

the phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of gene action.
CSP

The process in which a gene`s sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form. [GOC:dph, GOC:tb]
GO

The process by which a gene gets turned on in a cell to make RNA and proteins. Gene expression may be measured by looking at the RNA, or the protein made from the RNA, or what the protein does in a cell.
NCI

Typically involves transcription of genetically encoded information into an intermediary message (messenger RNA) and subsequent translation into a functional protein.
NCI

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keratin-4

A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-13 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin-4 are a cause of HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
MSH

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splanchnický oběh

The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
MSH

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aorta – stenóza subvalvulární

An aortic stenosis caused by fibromuscular stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It may be associated with congenital heart defects.
NCI

A pathological constriction occurring in the region below the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
MSH

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arteriae thoracicae internae

Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
MSH

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permeabilita

Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
MSH

A measure of the rate at which a substrate can pass water.
NCI

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generalizace – stimulus

The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
MSH

tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
CSP

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