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ionofory

Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
MSH

molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers; there are two classes: carriers and channels; carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer; channels, like gramicidin, form continuous aqueous pores through the bilayer, allowing ions to diffuse through.
CSP

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ezofágoplastika

A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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karcinom z ledvinných buněk

A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
MSH

cancerous kidney tumor composed of tubular cells; usually occurs in middle age or later in life; primary symptom is hematuria; nephrectomy is usually necessary.
CSP

The most common type of kidney cancer. It begins in the lining of the renal tubules in the kidney. The renal tubules filter the blood and produce urine.
NCI

A carcinoma arising from the renal parenchyma. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased by 35% from 1973 to 1991. There is a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and the development of renal cell carcinoma. The clinical presentation includes : hematuria, flank pain and a palpable lumbar mass. A high percentage of renal cell carcinomas are diagnosed when an ultrasound is performed for other purposes. Diagnostic procedures include: ultra sound, intravenous pyelography and computed tomography (CT). Radical nephrectomy is the standard intervention procedure. Renal cell carcinoma is generally considered to be resistant to radiation treatment and chemotherapy.
NCI

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žaludeční obsah

The contents of the stomach that may include undigested food mixed with juices secreted by the gastric mucosal glands.
NCI

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fenylrtuťné sloučeniny

Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.
MSH

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HESTE LODI SUMINKOR SINDROMEA

chronic noninflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain, altered bowel habits consisting of diarrhea or constipation or both, and no detectable pathologic change; a variant form is characterized by painless diarrhea; it is a common disorder with a psychophysiologic basis; called also spastic or irritable colon.
CSP

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a problem that affects the large intestine. It can cause abdominal cramping, bloating and a change in bowel habits. Some people with the disorder have constipation. Some have diarrhea. Some go back and forth between constipation and diarrhea. Although IBS can cause a great deal of discomfort, it does not harm the intestines.

IBS is a common disorder and happens more often in women than men. No one knows the exact cause of IBS. There is no specific test for IBS. However, your doctor may run tests to be sure you don`t have other diseases. These tests may include stool sampling tests, blood tests and x-rays. Your doctor may also do a test called a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Most people diagnosed with IBS can control their symptoms with diet, stress management and medicine.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A common syndrome manifested by symptoms of bloating, abdominal cramping, constipation, and/or diarrhea. In most patients the symptoms are not severe and they can be controlled with diet, stress, and lifestyle management. A small percentage of individuals may experience severe symptoms. The cause is unknown.
NCI

A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person`s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other.
NCI

A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
MSH

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estrus – detekce

Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
MSH

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profesní mobilita

The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.
MSH

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Streptomyces aureofaciens

An actinomycete from which the antibiotic CHLORTETRACYCLINE is obtained.
MSH

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Phodopus

A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
MSH

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isometrická kontrakce

Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
MSH

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ethionin

2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
MSH

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Articaine hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt form of articaine, an amide-type local anesthetic. Articaine hydrochloride reversibly blocks nerve impulse conduction by binding to specific membrane sodium ion channels thereby interfering with the electrical excitation in the nerve, slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse and reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. This results in a loss of sensation at the injection site. Articaine hydrochloride is used for relief of pain in minor operations, usually in combination with the vasoconstrictor epinephrine.
NCI

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struma ovarii

A rare teratoid tumor of the ovary composed almost entirely of thyroid tissue, with large follicles containing abundant colloid. Occasionally there are symptoms of hyperthyroidism. 5-10% of struma ovarii become malignant, the only absolute criterion for which is the presence of metastasis. (Dorland, 27th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
MSH

An ovarian mature teratoma characterized by the presence of aberrant thyroid tissue. The aberrant thyroid tissue shows morphologic changes identical to thyroid adenoma or carcinoma. Patients may present with abdominal mass and unusual symptoms due to thyrotoxicosis, or Meigs syndrome (ascites and pleural effusion).
NCI

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fosfoenolpyruvátkarboxykinasa (závislá na GTP)

An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.
MSH

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žloutenka chronická idiopatická

A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestinal symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.
MSH

An inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of mild jaundice due to abnormalities in the bilirubin transportation from the liver parenchyma to the biliary system.
NCI

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ethylmaleimid

A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
MSH

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katecholy

A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
MSH

ortho-hydroxy phenol, the ring structure of catecholamines, an important class of intercellular transmitter molecules.
CSP

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podjazyková slinná žláza

smallest of the three chief, paired salivary glands, draining the oral cavity.
CSP

A salivary gland located under the tongue in the floor of the oral cavity.
NCI

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fosfor – poruchy metabolismu

Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation or interruption in the processing of phosphorus in the body includes its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
CSP

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Jordánsko

A country in the Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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eutrofikace

The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
MSH

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Cayman Islands

An island group in the Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras. (NCI)
NCI

An island group in the Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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sacharasa-isomaltasa komplex

An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
MSH

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ftalimidy

The imide of phthalic acids.
MSH

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Kemerovo Virus

A serotype, in the species Great Island virus, of antigenically related tick-borne viruses found in Eastern Europe, Egypt, and Sudan.
MSH

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exotoxiny

Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
MSH

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molekuly buněčné adheze neuronové

Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
MSH

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sulfachinoxalin

An antiprotozoal agent used to combat coccidial infections of swine, cattle, fowl, and other veterinary animals. Also used in controlling outbreaks of fowl typhoid and fowl cholera and in treatment of infectious enteritis.
MSH

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fyziologické procesy

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

Any process specifically pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. A process is a collection of molecular events with a defined beginning and end. [GOC:go_curators, GOC:isa_complete]
GO

The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
MSH

A biologic function, activity, or process involving either specialized organ functions, individual organs, organ systems, body parts, or whole organisms.
NCI

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