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žábry

respiratory structure of all fishes and some other aquatic animals.
CSP

A respiratory organ found in aquatic animals that allows for the exchange of dissolved oxygen from water into the blood stream.
NCI

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radiační ochrana

measures to reduce exposure to radiation.
CSP

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kardiologie

The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
MSH

The branch of medicine dealing with the heart and its diseases. (WordNet)
NCI

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maximální exspirační průtok

The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
MSH

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alkalóza

A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
MSH

pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
CSP

A disorder characterized by abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues.
NCI

An abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues.
NCI

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glipizid

An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
MSH

1-cyclohexyl-3-(p-(2-(5-methyl pyrazinecarboxamido) ethyl) phenyl) sulfonylurea; a typical member of the sulfonylurea family of type II (NIDDM) antidiabetic drugs.
CSP

A member of the second generation of the sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents. Glipizide inhibits the ATP-sensitive potassium channels on the beta-cell membrane, thereby preventing potassium efflux leading to membrane depolarization and subsequent calcium influx. The increased intracellular calcium levels induce insulin secretion from functioning beta-cells of the pancreatic islet tissue and reduces blood glucose levels.
NCI

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radioimunosorpční test

Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.
MSH

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arteria carotis – trombóza

Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
MSH

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mediastinum – emfyzém

Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.
MSH

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alylisopropylacetamid

An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.
MSH

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glutaminfruktosa-6-fosfáttransaminasa (izomerizující)

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
MSH

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Rana catesbeiana

A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name “bullfrog”, it is the largest native anuran in North America.
MSH

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receptorový protein pro cyklický AMP

A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
MSH

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lékařská péče – úhrada služeb

Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.
MSH

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alprazolam

A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)
MSH

8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-s-triazolo benzodiazepine, has both antidepressant and anxiolytic properties; possible efficacy in alcohol withdrawal therapy; abuse can lead to habituation or addiction.
CSP

a drug used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks
CHV

A drug used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks. It is being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of benzodiazepine.
NCI

A triazolobenzodiazepine agent with anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities. Alprazolam binds to a specific site distinct from the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding site on the benzodiazepine-GABA-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex located in the limbic, thalamic and hypothalamic regions of the central nervous system (CNS). This binding causes an allosteric modification of the receptor and enhances the affinity of GABA to the receptor leading to an increase in the frequency of chloride-channel opening events. This leads to an increase in chloride ion conductance, neuronal hyperpolarization, inhibition of the action potential and leads to a decrease in neuronal excitability. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39659&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39659&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C227″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A triazolobenzodiazepine agent with anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities. Alprazolam binds to a specific site distinct from the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding site on the benzodiazepine-GABA-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex located in the limbic, thalamic and hypothalamic regions of the central nervous system (CNS). This binding causes an allosteric modification of the receptor and enhances the affinity of GABA to the receptor leading to an increase in the frequency of chloride-channel opening events. This leads to an increase in chloride ion conductance, neuronal hyperpolarization, inhibition of the action potential and leads to a decrease in neuronal excitability.
NCI

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glutathion

A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
MSH

tripeptide composed of gamma-glutamate, cysteine, and glycine; an important endogenous reducing agent involved in oxidative respiration and free radical scavenging.
CSP

A substance found in plant and animal tissues that has many functions in a cell. These include activating certain enzymes and destroying toxic compounds and chemicals that contain oxygen.
NCI

A tripeptide comprised of three amino acids (cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine) present in most mammalian tissue. Glutathione acts as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and a detoxifying agent. Glutathione is also important as a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, in the uptake of amino acids, and in the synthesis of leukotrienes. As a substrate for glutathione S-transferase, this agent reacts with a number of harmful chemical species, such as halides, epoxides and free radicals, to form harmless inactive products. In erythrocytes, these reactions prevent oxidative damage through the reduction of methemoglobin and peroxides. Glutathione is also involved in the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds in proteins and in the transport of amino acids across cell membranes.
NCI

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krysy

The common name for the genus Rattus.
MSH

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kationty dvojmocné

positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
CSP

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melancholie

A subtype of depression characterized by the inability to find pleasure in positive things combined with physical agitation, insomnia, or decreased appetite.
NCI

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ambulantní péče

Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
MSH

services rendered by members of the health profession (or under their supervision) for the benefit of patients who come to the hospital or clinic for diagnosis or treatment but do not occupy a bed.
CSP

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glykogenóza typu VI

A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.
MSH

hepatic glycogen storage disease in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase activity.
CSP

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receptory cyklického AMP

Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
MSH

cell surface receptor found in slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, where cyclic AMP functions both intra- and extra-cellularly; or, the CRP of E. coli and other systems, a cystolic, DNA-binding protein of the steroid receptor type.
CSP

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cefoperazon

Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
MSH

A semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefoperazone binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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muži

Human adult males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
MSH

An adult, male human.
NCI

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amikacin

A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
MSH

An antibiotic drug used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called aminoglycoside antibiotics.
NCI

A broad-spectrum semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic, derived from kanamycin with antimicrobial property. Amikacin irreversibly binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, specifically locking 16S rRNA and S12 protein within the 30S subunit. This leads to interference with translational initiation complex and , misreading of mRNA, thereby hampering protein synthesis and resulting in bactericidal effect. This agent is usually used in short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria.
NCI

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cíle

The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
MSH

A goal or aim to be accomplished or attained.
NCI

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receptory prolaktinu

Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells` physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
MSH

The Prolactin Receptor binds prolactin, initiating the cellular response to the hormone. The receptor is found in breast, placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs. The prolactin receptor is homologous to members of the cytokine receptor superfamily, such as GHR, IL2R, IL3R, IL4R, IL6R, IL7R, EPOR, and GMCSFR. PRLR isoforms differ in the length of their cytoplasmic domains. The short form acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor, forming inactive heterodimers that inhibit Janus kinase 2 activation. (from OMIM 176761 and NCI)
NCI

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buňky – hypoxie

A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
MSH

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menstruace – poruchy

variations of menstruation or the menstrual cycle which may be indicative of disease.
CSP

Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
MSH

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aminoglykosidy

Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
MSH

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