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ekonazol

An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.
MSH

An imidazole with antifungal property. Econazole compromises the integrity of fungal cell wall through inhibiting 14-alpha demethylase, which catalyzes conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. As a result, this agent increases cellular permeability thereby resulting in leakage of cellular contents. Furthermore, econazole has also been implicated to inhibit endogenous respiration, interact with membrane phospholipids, inhibit purine uptake, and impair triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis.
NCI

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prsty ruky – poranění

General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
MSH

You use your fingers and thumbs to do everything from grasping objects to playing musical instruments to typing on a keyboard. When there is something wrong with them, it can make life difficult. Common problems include

  • Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations
  • Osteoarthritis – wear-and-tear arthritis, which can also cause deformity
  • Tendinitis – irritation of the tendons
  • Dupuytren`s contracture – a hereditary thickening of the tough tissue that lies just below the skin of your palm, which causes the fingers to stiffen and bend
  • Trigger finger – an irritation of the sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons, sometimes causing the tendon to catch and release like a trigger


MEDLINEPLUS

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Botswana

A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
MSH

A country in Southern Africa, north of South Africa. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southern Africa, north of South Africa. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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terfenylové sloučeniny

Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
MSH

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leucin-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
MSH

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polysacharidy

linear or branched chain structure containing many sugar molecules linked by glycosidic bonds.
CSP

A large carbohydrate molecule. It contains many small sugar molecules that are joined chemically.
NCI

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edrofonium

A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
MSH

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flaviny

Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
MSH

group of compounds containing the isoalloxazine nucleus; characterized by yellow color and intense green fluorescence in the oxidized form.
CSP

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Hersenpathologie

Acute or chronic brain damage or dysfunction.
MSH

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tetrahydrofoláty

Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
MSH

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leukémie T-buněčná akutní

aggressive T-cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by human T lymphotropic virus type 1.
CSP

An aggressive (fast-growing) type of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is marked by bone and skin lesions, high calcium levels, and enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.
NCI

Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
MSH

A peripheral (mature) T-cell neoplasm caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is endemic in several regions of the world, in particular Japan, the Caribbean, and parts of Central Africa. (WHO, 2001)
NCI

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hydroxymethylbilansynthasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.3.1.8
MSH

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edukační aktivity

The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill.
NCI

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flumethason

An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in veterinary practice.
MSH

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bromelainy

Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
MSH

An enzyme found in pineapples that breaks down other proteins, such as collagen and muscle fiber, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a meat tenderizer in the food industry.
NCI

A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the pineapple plant that cleaves sulhydryl groups. The enzyme is adsorbed intact through the gastrointestinal tract and has demonstrated therapeutic benefit. Bromelain has the ability to modulate cytokines, and has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity, immune response activity, and fibrinolytic activity. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459959&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459959&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C28134″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the pineapple plant that cleaves sulfhydryl groups. The enzyme is adsorbed intact through the gastrointestinal tract and has demonstrated therapeutic benefit. Bromelain has the ability to modulate cytokines, and has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity, immune response activity, and fibrinolytic activity.
NCI

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thekální buňky

The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
MSH

The connective tissue cells of the ovarian follicle. (MeSH)
NCI

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levodopa

The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
MSH

naturally occuring form of DOPA and precursor of dopamine; used as an antiparkinsonian agent; unlike dopamine it can be administered orally.
CSP

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a prodrug that is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson`s disease. To assure that adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system, it is administered with carbidopa, a decarboxylase inhibitor that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, thereby diminishing the decarboxylation and inactivation of levodopa in peripheral tissues and increasing the delivery of dopamine to the CNS. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42622&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42622&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C611″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. Levodopa is a prodrug that is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors, thereby compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine seen in Parkinson`s disease. To assure that adequate concentrations of levodopa reach the central nervous system, it is administered with carbidopa, a decarboxylase inhibitor that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, thereby diminishing the decarboxylation and inactivation of levodopa in peripheral tissues and increasing the delivery of dopamine to the CNS.
NCI

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draslíkové kanály

Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
MSH

cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions.
CSP

Ion channel selective for potassium ions. There are several types, each with different functions. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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Elapidae – jedy

Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
MSH

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fluoxymesteron

An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male HYPOGONADISM, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.
MSH

A halogenated derivative of 17-alpha-methyltestosterone. Similar to testosterone, fluoxymesterone binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an increase in protein anabolism, a decrease in amino acid catabolism, and retention of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. This agent also may competitively inhibit prolactin receptors and estrogen receptors, thereby inhibiting the growth of hormone-dependent tumor lines. Fluoxymesterone is approximately five times more potent than methyltestosterone. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=494707&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=494707&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C507″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A halogenated derivative of 17-alpha-methyltestosterone. Similar to testosterone, fluoxymesterone binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an increase in protein anabolism, a decrease in amino acid catabolism, and retention of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. This agent also may competitively inhibit prolactin receptors and estrogen receptors, thereby inhibiting the growth of hormone-dependent tumor lines. Fluoxymesterone is approximately five times more potent than methyltestosterone. (NCI04)
NCI

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bronchogenní cysta

A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.
MSH

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thiamin – nedostatek

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
MSH

nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of thiamine in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss; later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia; in addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption.
CSP

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lidoflazin

Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action.
MSH

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prazepam

A benzodiazepine that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
MSH

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elektromagnetická pole

Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
MSH

Field of force associated with a moving electric charge and consisting of electric and magnetic fields that are generated at right angles to each other.
NCI

Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are areas of energy that surround electrical devices. Power lines, electrical wiring, and appliances produce EMFs. Some people worry about EMF exposure and cancer. A few studies found a link between EMF exposure and a higher risk of childhood leukemia, but the link is weak. Other studies didn`t find a link between EMF exposure and other childhood cancers.

For adults, studies of EMF exposure from power lines and electric blankets show little evidence of a link to cancer. In adults, EMFs may reduce heart rate and interfere with brain electrical activity during sleep. This may or may not affect your health.

Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer. They give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. Scientists need to do more research on this before they can say for sure.

NIH: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences


MEDLINEPLUS

An area of electric and magnetic forces caused by electromagnetic radiation. Researchers are studying whether the electromagnetic fields from power lines, electrical appliances, and wireless and cellular telephones can cause cancer or other harmful health effects.
NCI

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potraviny – kontaminace

The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
MSH

presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances such as chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
CSP

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bufotenin

A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
MSH

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thionukleosidy

Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
MSH

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vazebná nerovnováha

Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
MSH

when a specific haplotype is almost always associated with a gene mutation; genetic diagnostic method used to decrease uncertainty in linkage analysis.
CSP

Where alleles (DNA markers) occur together more often than can be accounted for by chance because of their physical proximity on a chromosome.
NCI

Nonrandom association of linked genes; the occurrence of some genes together, more often than would be expected based upon their physical separation, presumably because the combination confers some selective advantage.
NCI

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těhotenské proteiny

Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
MSH

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