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geny imunoglobulinové

Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
MSH

genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins; these genes undergo several DNA rearrangements during the differentiation of stem cells into B cells and plasma cells, permitting synthesis of the various immunoglobulin classes.
CSP

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revmatické uzlíky

A small round or oval, mostly subcutaneous nodule made up chiefly of a mass of Aschoff bodies and seen in cases of rheumatic fever. It is differentiated from the RHEUMATOID NODULE which appears in rheumatoid arthritis, most frequently over bony prominences. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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kobamidy

biologically active form of vitamin B12, in which the cyanide counterion has been replaced by an adenine nucleoside.
CSP

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manpower

Used with disciplines and programs for the demand, supply, distribution, recruitment, and use of personnel.
MSH

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genetika populací

The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
MSH

study of the distribution of genes in populations and of how genes and genotype frequencies are maintained or changed.
CSP

The branch of genetics that focuses on gene distribution and transmission through populations.
NCI

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Rhonchi

An abnormal sound similar to snoring heard on auscultation of the bronchial airways, suggesting a partial obstruction due to thick secretions, a muscular spasm, or a neoplasm.
NCI

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coenuróza

a rare infection caused by larvae of the dog tapeworm
CHV

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Marsupalia

mammals with maternal pouch (marsupium) containing nipples; epipubic bones, double uterum and vagina; embryo leaves uterus and develops in marsupium.
CSP

An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
MSH

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geriatrická psychiatrie

A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.
MSH

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Rickettsia conorii

A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of BOUTONNEUSE FEVER. It resembles RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII but is antigenically distinct and less virulent for animals and man. (From Bergey`s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1)
MSH

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kolistin

Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
MSH

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novobiocin

An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)
MSH

antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces, effective chiefly against Staphylococcci and other gram-positive organisms.
CSP

An antibiotic drug used to treat infection.
NCI

An aminocoumarin antibiotic, produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces nivens, with antibacterial property. Novobiocin, as well as other aminocoumarin antibiotics, inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis by targeting at the bacteria DNA gyrase and the related enzyme DNA topoisomerase IV. This antibiotic was used to treat infections by gram-positive bacteria.
NCI

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mastodynie

Painful sensation in the breast region.
NCI

A disorder characterized by marked discomfort sensation in the breast region.
NCI

Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.
MSH

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žábry

respiratory structure of all fishes and some other aquatic animals.
CSP

A respiratory organ found in aquatic animals that allows for the exchange of dissolved oxygen from water into the blood stream.
NCI

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RNA caps

Nucleic acid structures found on the 5` end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
MSH

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kolon – polypy

Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
MSH

adenomatous colon polyps are considered to be precursor lesions of colon cancer.
CSP

A polyp is an extra piece of tissue that grows inside your body. Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps may turn into cancer or already be cancer. To be safe, doctors remove polyps and test them. Polyps can be removed when a doctor examines the inside of the large intestine during a colonoscopy.

Anyone can get polyps, but certain people are more likely than others. You may have a greater chance of getting polyps if you

  • Are over age 50
  • Have had polyps before
  • Have a family member with polyps
  • Have a family history of colon cancer

Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include blood on your underwear or on toilet paper after a bowel movement, blood in your stool, or constipation or diarrhea lasting more than a week.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

an extra piece of tissue that grows in the large intestine, or colon
CHV

Abnormal growths of tissue in the lining of the bowel. Polyps are a risk factor for colon cancer.
NCI

This is a descriptive term referring of a mass of tissue that bulges or projects into the lumen of the colon. The mass is macroscopically visible and may either have a broad base attachment to the colon wall, or be on a pedunculated stalk. These may be benign or malignant.
NCI

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nukleosid Q

A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
MSH

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maximální exspirační průtok

The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
MSH

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glipizid

An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
MSH

1-cyclohexyl-3-(p-(2-(5-methyl pyrazinecarboxamido) ethyl) phenyl) sulfonylurea; a typical member of the sulfonylurea family of type II (NIDDM) antidiabetic drugs.
CSP

A member of the second generation of the sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents. Glipizide inhibits the ATP-sensitive potassium channels on the beta-cell membrane, thereby preventing potassium efflux leading to membrane depolarization and subsequent calcium influx. The increased intracellular calcium levels induce insulin secretion from functioning beta-cells of the pancreatic islet tissue and reduces blood glucose levels.
NCI

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RNA transferová Arg

A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
MSH

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ARNAS IBILBIDE GARAIETAKO ZOLDURA/ HOTZALDI ARRUNTA

A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
MSH

catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection; marked by acute coryza, slight rise in temperature, chilly sensations, and general indisposition.
CSP

Sneezing, sore throat, a stuffy nose, coughing – everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds.

You can get a cold by touching your eyes or nose after you touch surfaces with cold germs on them. You can also inhale the germs. Symptoms usually begin 2 or 3 days after infection and last 2 to 14 days. Washing your hands and staying away from people with colds will help you avoid colds.

There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try

  • Getting plenty of rest
  • Drinking fluids
  • Gargling with warm salt water
  • Using cough drops or throat sprays
  • Taking over-the-counter pain or cold medicines

However, do not give aspirin to children. And do not give cough medicine to children under four.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

An inflammatory process affecting the nasal mucosa, usually caused by viruses (e.g., rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, and coronavirus). It is characterized by chills, headaches, mucopurulent nasal discharge, coughing, and facial pain.
NCI

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the nasal mucosal.
NCI

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ošetřovatelství – výzkum vyhodnocovací

Research carried out by nurses that uses interviews, data collection, observation, surveys, etc., to evaluate nursing, health, clinical, and nursing education programs and curricula, and which also demonstrates the value of such evaluation.
MSH

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mediastinum – emfyzém

Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.
MSH

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glutaminfruktosa-6-fosfáttransaminasa (izomerizující)

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
MSH

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role

The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.
MSH

expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.
CSP

The action or activity assigned to or required or expected of a person or group.
NCI

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komplement C1

The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
MSH

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nystatin

Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
MSH

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat infections caused by fungi (a type of microorganism). Nystatin is made by certain strains of bacteria and kills fungi by binding to their membranes. It is a type of antifungal agent.
NCI

a drug used to treat fungal infections
CHV

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lékařská péče – úhrada služeb

Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.
MSH

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glutathion

A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
MSH

tripeptide composed of gamma-glutamate, cysteine, and glycine; an important endogenous reducing agent involved in oxidative respiration and free radical scavenging.
CSP

A substance found in plant and animal tissues that has many functions in a cell. These include activating certain enzymes and destroying toxic compounds and chemicals that contain oxygen.
NCI

A tripeptide comprised of three amino acids (cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine) present in most mammalian tissue. Glutathione acts as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and a detoxifying agent. Glutathione is also important as a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, in the uptake of amino acids, and in the synthesis of leukotrienes. As a substrate for glutathione S-transferase, this agent reacts with a number of harmful chemical species, such as halides, epoxides and free radicals, to form harmless inactive products. In erythrocytes, these reactions prevent oxidative damage through the reduction of methemoglobin and peroxides. Glutathione is also involved in the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds in proteins and in the transport of amino acids across cell membranes.
NCI

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glycerol

A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
MSH

1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, a key intermediate in glucose metabolism; also serves as the bridge between hydrophobic “tails” and hydrophilic “heads” of many membrane lipids; reagent is used as a water-soluble solvent and lubricant.
CSP

A trihydroxyalcohol with localized osmotic diuretic and laxative effects. Glycerin elevates the blood plasma osmolality thereby extracting water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. This agent also prevents water reabsorption in the proximal tubule in the kidney leading to an increase in water and sodium excretion and a reduction in blood volume. Administered rectally, glycerin exerts a hyperosmotic laxative effect by attracting water into the rectum, thereby relieving constipation. In addition, glycerin is used as a solvent, humectant and vehicle in various pharmaceutical preparations.
NCI

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