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civilizace

The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
MSH

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loperamid

One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.
MSH

A synthetic agent chemically related to the opiates with anti-diarrheal properties. Loperamide decreases gastro-intestinal motility by effects on the circular and longitudinal muscles of the intestine. Part of its anti-diarrheal effect may be due to a reduction of gastro-intestinal secretion produced by opioid receptor binding in the intestinal mucosa. (NCI04)
NCI

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fumaráthydratasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
MSH

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aklarubicin

An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.
MSH

An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39131&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39131&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C202″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
NCI

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pseudogeny

Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
MSH

inactive but stable components of the genome derived from mutations of ancestral genes; probably account for a significant amount of the so-called “junk DNA” that comprises most of the genome of eukaryotes.
CSP

Nonfunctional DNA sequences that are very similar to the sequences of known genes. Many seem to have arisen as functional gene duplications that subsequently underwent mutation and loss of function. Others are structurally similar to mRNA and seem to have arisen by a reverse transcription event followed by integration into the genome. Some pseudogenes are transcribed and may play a role in regulation of its homologous gene.
NCI

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kloaka

A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
MSH

The singular posterior opening of the intestinal and urinary tracts of birds, reptiles, amphibians, marsupials and monotremes.
NCI

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plíce

Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
MSH

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of air-filled alveoli which communicate with the tracheobronchial tree. Examples: There are only two instances, right lung and left lung.
UWDA

either of the pair of organs occupying the lateral cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
CSP

Lobular organ which has as its parts alveoli connected to the tracheobronchial tree. Examples: There are only two instances, right lung and left lung.
FMA

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which aeration of the blood takes place. As a rule, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), while the left has two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conical in shape, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), an inner or mediastinal surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a thick and rounded posterior border. (NCI)
NCI

One of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body.
NCI

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which aeration of the blood takes place. As a rule, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), while the left has two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conical in shape, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), an inner or mediastinal surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a thick and rounded posterior border.
NCI

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G(M3) gangliosid

A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
MSH

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aktinium

Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.
MSH

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psychoakustika

The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual`s response to the physical properties of sound.
MSH

science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the response to the physical properties of sound.
CSP

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koagulum – retrakce

Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.
MSH

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lymfadenektomie

Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
MSH

surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes; its common use is in cancer surgery.
CSP

A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. For a regional lymphadenectomy, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed; for a radical lymphadenectomy, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed.
NCI

Surgical removal of lymph nodes, usually done to assess the spread of cancer.
NCI

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galium – isotopy

Stable gallium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gallium, but differ in atomic weight. Ga-71 is a stable gallium isotope.
MSH

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protein přenášející acyl

Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4`-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
MSH

small subunits of mitochondrial fatty acid synthase complex that covalently bind the growing fatty acid and carry it through the course of synthesis.
CSP

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psychofyziologické poruchy

A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
MSH

characterized by physical symptoms and demonstrable structural or physiological changes in which emotional factors are believed to play a major etiologic role.
CSP

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aquaeductus cochlearis

A fine channel that passes through the TEMPORAL BONE near the SCALA TYMPANI (the basilar turn of the cochlea). The cochlear aqueduct connects the PERILYMPH-filled bony labyrinth to the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
MSH

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lymfom non-Hodgkinův

Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin`s disease.
MSH

characterized by malignant lymphomas; clinically similar to Hodgkin`s disease, except that the lymphomas seen in this disease are initially more widespread; most common manifestation is painless enlargement of one or more peripheral lymph nodes.
CSP

Distinct from Hodgkin lymphoma both morphologically and biologically, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is characterized by the absence of Reed-Sternberg cells, can occur at any age, and usually presents as a localized or generalized lymphadenopathy associated with fever and weight loss. The clinical course varies according to the morphologic type. NHL is clinically classified as indolent, aggressive, or having a variable clinical course. NHL can be of B-or T-/NK-cell lineage.
NCI

Any of a large group of cancers of lymphocytes (white blood cells). NHLs can occur at any age and are often marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of NHL. These types can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types, and they can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells. B-cell NHLs include Burkitt lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphomas that occur after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell NHLs. Prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and type of disease.
NCI

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ganglioneurom

A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)
MSH

A well differentiated, slow growing neuroepithelial neoplasm composed of neoplastic, mature ganglion cells. (Adapted from WHO)
NCI

A benign neuroblastic tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that occurs in childhood. Ganglioneuroma typically arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. Common presenting features include a palpable abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, and a thoracic mass detected on routine chest X-ray.
NCI

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adenosindifosfát

Adenosine 5`-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5`-position.
MSH

adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5`-position that is converted to ATP for energy for storage.
CSP

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veřejné zdravotnictví – řízení

Management of public health organizations or agencies.
MSH

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Eigen bijdrage

That portion of the eligible charges which a covered party must pay for each service and/or product. It is a percentage of the eligible amount for the service/product that is typically charged after the covered party has met the policy deductible. This amount represents the covered party`s coinsurance that is applied to a particular adjudication result. It is expressed as a negative dollar amount in adjudication results.


HL7V3.0

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makroglosie

The presence of an excessively large tongue, which may be congenital or may develop as a result of a tumor or edema due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels, or it may occur in association with hyperpituitarism or acromegaly. It also may be associated with malocclusion because of pressure of the tongue on the teeth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
MSH

A finding indicating enlargement of the tongue.
NCI

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gastritida atrofická

GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
MSH

A condition in which the stomach muscles shrink and become weak. The digestive (peptic) glands may also shrink, resulting in a lack of digestive juices.
NCI

Inflammation of the body fundic mucosa of the stomach. It results from the development of autoantibodies against the parietal and chief cells. It is associated with the presence of intestinal metaplasia and an increased risk of developing gastric carcinoma.
NCI

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poruchy přizpůsobení

Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.
MSH

A condition in which a person responds to a stressful event (such as an illness, job loss, or divorce) with extreme emotions and actions that cause problems at work and home.
NCI

A category of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by emotional or behavioral symptoms that develop within 3 months of a stressor and do not persist for more than an additional 6 months after the stressor is no longer present.
NCI

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arteria pulmonalis – stenóza subvalvulární

Narrowing below the PULMONARY VALVE or well below it in the infundibuluar chamber where the pulmonary artery originates, usually caused by a defective VENTRICULAR SEPTUM or presence of fibrous tissues. It is characterized by restricted blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the PULMONARY ARTERY, exertional fatigue, DYSPNEA, and chest discomfort.
MSH

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kolapsová terapie

Surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis whereby the lung is totally or partially, temporarily or permanently, immobilized. The procedure was based on the popular concept that collapsing the affected portion of a tuberculous lung allowed the infected area to rest and thereby recover. At the beginning of the 20th century artificially induced pneumothorax (PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL) was popular. Later a variety of other techniques was used to encourage collapse of the infected portion of the lung: unilateral phrenic nerve division, PNEUMONOLYSIS, pneumoperitoneum (PNEUMOPERITONEUM, ARTIFICIAL), and THORACOPLASTY. Collapse therapy has declined since the advent of antitubercular chemotherapy. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Sabiston Jr, Textbook of Surgery, 14th ed, p1733-4)
MSH

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údržba a strojní zařízení nemocnice

Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.
MSH

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Porucha pohlavní identity

A disorder characterized by a strong and persistent cross-gender identification (such as stating a desire to be the other sex or frequently passing as the other sex) coupled with persistent discomfort with his or her sex (manifested in adults, for example, as a preoccupation with altering primary and secondary sex characteristics through hormonal manipulation or surgery).
NCI

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nadledvinová kůra – nádory

Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

A benign or malignant (primary or metastatic) neoplasm affecting the adrenal cortex. (NCI05)
NCI

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puromycin

A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
MSH

antibiotic produced by Streptomyces alboniger, used as an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
CSP

An aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces alboniger. Acting as an analog of the 3` terminal end of aminoacyl-tRNA, puromycin incorporates itself into a growing polypeptide chain and causes its premature termination, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. This agent has antimicrobial, antitrypanosomal, and antineoplastic properties; it is used as an antibiotic in cell culture. (NCI04)
NCI

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