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pseudogeny

Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
MSH

inactive but stable components of the genome derived from mutations of ancestral genes; probably account for a significant amount of the so-called “junk DNA” that comprises most of the genome of eukaryotes.
CSP

Nonfunctional DNA sequences that are very similar to the sequences of known genes. Many seem to have arisen as functional gene duplications that subsequently underwent mutation and loss of function. Others are structurally similar to mRNA and seem to have arisen by a reverse transcription event followed by integration into the genome. Some pseudogenes are transcribed and may play a role in regulation of its homologous gene.
NCI

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mezonefrom

A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

An adenocarcinoma of the cervix or the vagina arising from mesonephric remnants.
NCI

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DNA satelitní

Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
MSH

DNA that contains many tandem highly repetitive sequences, that have a base composition (and thus density) sufficiently different from that of normal DNA that it sediments as a distinct band in cesium chloride density gradients. Satellite DNA is located at very specific spots in the genome (on chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and the Y chromosome, the tiny short arms of chromosomes 13-15 and 21 and 22, and near the centromeres of chromosomes). (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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Grónsko

An island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada. (NCI)
NCI

An island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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aktinium

Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.
MSH

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biopsie

Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
MSH

removal and pathologic examination of tissue taken from the living body and performed to establish a more exact diagnosis.
CSP

The removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope or perform other tests on the cells or tissue. There are many different types of biopsy procedures. The most common types include: (1) incisional biopsy, in which only a sample of tissue is removed; (2) excisional biopsy, in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed; and (3) needle biopsy, in which a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle.
NCI

A biopsy is a procedure that removes a small piece of living tissue from your body. The tissue is examined with a microscope for signs of damage or disease. Biopsies can be done on all parts of the body. A biopsy is the only test that can tell for sure if a suspicious area is cancer. But biopsies are performed for many other reasons too.

There are different ways to do a biopsy. A needle biopsy removes tissue with a needle passed through your skin to the site of the problem. Other kinds of biopsies require surgery.


MEDLINEPLUS

The removal of tissue specimens or fluid from the living body for microscopic examination, performed to establish a diagnosis.
NCI

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psychoakustika

The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual`s response to the physical properties of sound.
MSH

science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the response to the physical properties of sound.
CSP

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Squamous metaplasia

A morphologic finding indicating the transformation of glandular or transitional epithelial cells to, usually, mature squamous epithelial cells. Representative examples include squamous metaplasia of bronchial epithelium, cervix, urinary bladder, and prostate gland.
NCI

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vztah dávky záření a odpovědi

The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
MSH

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methacholinové sloučeniny

A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
MSH

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doxorubicin

Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
MSH

antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius; a hydroxy derivative of daunorubicin.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat many types of cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Doxorubicin comes from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. It damages DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic.
NCI

a kind of cancer treatment drug
CHV

An anthracycline antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Doxorubicin, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius, is the hydroxylated congener of daunorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix, thereby preventing DNA replication and ultimately inhibiting protein synthesis. Additionally, doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II which results in an increased and stabilized cleavable enzyme-DNA linked complex during DNA replication and subsequently prevents the ligation of the nucleotide strand after double-strand breakage. Doxorubicin also forms oxygen free radicals resulting in cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids; the formation of oxygen free radicals also contributes to the toxicity of the anthracycline antibiotics, namely the cardiac and cutaneous vascular effects.
NCI

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guanosintrifosfát

Guanosine 5`-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
MSH

guanosine 5`-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate); a guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
CSP

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adenin

A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
MSH

6-aminopurine; one of the 5 major bases (with guanine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil) found in nucleic acids.
CSP

A chemical compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also a part of many substances in the body that give energy to cells. Adenine is a type of purine.
NCI

A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. (MeSH)
NCI

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močový měchýř – obstrukce

Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.
MSH

Blockage of the opening between the bladder and the urethra resulting in the reduction or prevention of the urine flow from the bladder into the urethra.
NCI

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psychoterapie

A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
MSH

treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders based primarily upon verbal or nonverbal communication and interventions with the patient.
CSP

Treatment of mental, emotional, personality, and behavioral disorders using methods such as discussion, listening, and counseling.
NCI

A method of treating disease, esp. psychic disorders, by mental rather than pharmacological means (e.g., suggestion, re-education, hypnotism, and psychoanalysis). (Taber`s)
NCI

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Methods aspects

Used with techniques, procedures, and programs for methods.
MSH

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léky – modelování struktury

The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
MSH

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hemonchiáza

Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.
MSH

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ATPasa Ca(2+) Mg(2+)

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.
MSH

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krevní oběh

The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
MSH

general term for blood supply and flow through tissues and organs.
CSP

The flow of blood through the body of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products. [GOC:mtg_heart, ISBN:0192800825]
GO

In the body, the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels, and the flow of lymph through the lymph vessels.
NCI

The movement of blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body`s organs, tissues, and cells through the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries. (NCI)
NCI

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puerperium – poruchy

Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
MSH

disorders occurring to the mother in the period immediately following delivery.
CSP

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methylhistaminy

Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.
MSH

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Duaneův retrakční syndrom

A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
MSH

A rare disorder affecting the muscles of the eye. It is characterized by an abnormal contraction of some eye muscles and failure of contraction of other eye muscles. It leads to limited abduction and adduction of the affected eye.
NCI

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hamartom

A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.
MSH

A benign (not cancer) growth made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissues normally found in the area of the body where the growth occurs.
NCI

A benign and excessive tumor-like growth of mature cells and normal tissues which grow in a disorganized pattern.
NCI

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aplikace orální

The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
MSH

route of drug or nutrient intake via the mouth.
CSP

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krevní transfúze

The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream.
CSP

The injection of whole blood or a blood component directly into the bloodstream.
NCI

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pulpitida

Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
MSH

Inflammation of the dental pulp.
NCI

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metrizoát

A diagnostic radiopaque that usually occurs as the sodium salt.
MSH

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dysartrie

Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
MSH

imperfect speech articulation due to disturbances of muscular control.
CSP

Slow and slurred speech resulting from inability to coordinate the muscles that are used in speech. Causes include brain damage, Parkinson disease, and developmental causes.
NCI

A disorder characterized by slow and slurred speech resulting from an inability to coordinate the muscles used in speech.
NCI

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nebezpečné látky

Substances which, upon release into the atmosphere, water, or soil, or which, in direct contact with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, or as additives to food, cause health risks to humans or animals through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. The concept includes safe handling, transportation, and storage of these substances.
MSH

substances which, upon release into the atmosphere, water, or soil, or which, in direct contact with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, or as a food additive, cause health risks to humans or animals through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion.
CSP

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