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klony buněčné

A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes; clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence.
CSP

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ambulantní kliniky nemocniční

Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
MSH

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nervosvalová vřeténka

Skeletal muscle structures that function as the mechanoreceptors responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag1 fibers, nuclear bag2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by sensory neurons.
MSH

The Muscle Spindle is composed of intrafusal fibers that are located within and run parallel to the extrafusal fibers of skeletal muscle. When the extrafusal fibers are stretched, the intrafusal fibers of the spindle stretch as well. When stretching occurs, the sensory neuron from the muscle spindle signals the motor neurons located within the ventral horn of the spinal cord. This signal causes the motor neurons to fire, resulting in contraction of the muscle. This reflex arc provides negative feedback. The muscular contraction induced by the stretching works against or negates further muscle stretch. This mechanism helps to maintain proper muscle tension or tone. Although the muscle spindle helps to maintain proper muscle tension, unlike the Golgi tendon organ, it is not an indicator of muscle tension, but rather of muscle length.
NCI

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Alkalická fosfatáza v séru NOS

A quantitative measurement of the amount of alkaline phosphatase present in a sample of serum.
NCI

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hyperparatyreoidismus sekundární

Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
MSH

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koagulasa

Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
MSH

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oxazoly

Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
MSH

five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position.
CSP

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neutronová aktivační analýza

Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

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sexuální delikty

any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
CSP

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hypoaldosteronismus

A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.
MSH

aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium.
CSP

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Codeine Phosphate

The phosphate salt of codeine, a naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloid and opioid agonist with analgesic, antidiarrheal and antitussive activities. Codeine mimics the actions of endogenous opioids by binding to the opioid receptors at many sites within the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulation of mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a decrease in the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the codeine metabolite morphine induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Stimulation of gut mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a reduction in intestinal motility and delayed intestinal transit times. Antitussive activity is mediated through codeine`s action on the cough center in the medulla.
NCI

A drug used to treat pain, cough, and diarrhea. It is made from opium or morphine and binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Codeine phosphate is a type of opiate, a type of analgesic agent, a type of antitussive agent, and a type of antidiarrheal agent.
NCI

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oxyfenon

A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.
MSH

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niklosamid

An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)
MSH

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šok hemoragický

Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
MSH

hemorrhage decreases the mean systemic filling pressure, therefore decreasing venous return; as a result, the cardiac output falls below normal, and shock ensues.
CSP

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area hypothalamica lateralis

This area is bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of fornix. The medial edge of the internal capsule and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE. (Parent, Carpenter`s Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p710)
MSH

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bakteriociny – plazmidy

Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
MSH

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bolest

An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
MSH

unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli and generally received by specialized nerve endings.
CSP

Pain is a feeling triggered in the nervous system. Pain may be sharp or dull. It may come and go, or it may be constant. You may feel pain in one area of your body, such as your back, abdomen or chest or you may feel pain all over, such as when your muscles ache from the flu.

Pain can be helpful in diagnosing a problem. Without pain, you might seriously hurt yourself without knowing it, or you might not realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. Once you take care of the problem, pain usually goes away. However, sometimes pain goes on for weeks, months or even years. This is called chronic pain. Sometimes chronic pain is due to an ongoing cause, such as cancer or arthritis. Sometimes the cause is unknown.

Fortunately, there are many ways to treat pain. Treatment varies depending on the cause of pain. Pain relievers, acupuncture and sometimes surgery are helpful.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the sensation of marked discomfort, distress or agony.
NCI

The sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony, resulting from the stimulation of specialized nerve endings.
NCI

Causing physical or psychological misery, pain or distress.
NCI

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Nisslova tělíska

Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
MSH

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sigma faktor

A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
MSH

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kyselina ibotenová

A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
MSH

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kolon

The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
MSH

part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
CSP

The longest part of the large intestine, which is a tube-like organ connected to the small intestine at one end and the anus at the other. The colon removes water and some nutrients and electrolytes from partially digested food. The remaining material, solid waste called stool, moves through the colon to the rectum and leaves the body through the anus.
NCI

The part of the large intestine measured from the cecum to the rectum consisting of ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid portions. The purpose of the colon is to remove water from digested food prior to excretion. (NCI)
NCI

The part of the large intestine measured from the cecum to the rectum consisting of ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid portions. The purpose of the colon is to remove water from digested food prior to excretion.
NCI

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pankreas

A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
MSH

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
UWDA

mixed exocrine and endocrine gland situated transversely across the posterior abdominal wall in the epigastric and hypochondriac regions; endocrine portion is comprised of the islets of Langerhans, and the exocrine portion is a compound acinar gland that secretes digestive enzymes.
CSP

Having to do with the pancreas.
NCI

A glandular organ located in the abdomen. It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. The pancreas is surrounded by the stomach, intestines, and other organs.
NCI

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
FMA

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (NCI)
NCI

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (from Diabetes Dictionary: http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/dictionary)
NCI

Of or pertaining to the pancreas.
NCI

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4-nitrofenylfosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.
MSH

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simethikon

A poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is a polymer of 200-350 units of dimethylsiloxane, along with added silica gel. It is used as an antiflatulent, surfactant, and ointment base.
MSH

A mixture of polydimethylsiloxanes with antifoaming and anti-bloating effects. Simethicone reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles causing them to coalesce into larger bubbles that can be passed more easily by belching or flatulence.
NCI

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ileostomie

Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
MSH

An opening into the ileum, part of the small intestine, from the outside of the body. An ileostomy provides a new path for waste material to leave the body after part of the intestine has been removed.
NCI

a surgery that makes an opening into the ileum (part of the small bowel)
CHV

Surgical creation of an external opening into the ileum for fecal diversion or drainage. Loop or tube procedures are most often employed. (MeSH)
NCI

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zodpovědnost duševně nemocného

Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.
MSH

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pantethein

An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
MSH

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nomifensin

An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
MSH

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kůže – absorpce

Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
MSH

to take in or assimilate substances into or across the skin.
CSP

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imunita

nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
CSP

Definition:Testing has shown that the patient already has immunity to the agent targeted by the immunization.


HL7V3.0

The protection against infectious disease conferred by the immune response. It encompasses the capacity to distinguish foreign material from self, and to neutralize, eliminate, or metabolize that which is foreign.
NCI

The condition of being protected against an infectious disease. Immunity can be caused by a vaccine, previous infection with the same agent, or by transfer of immune substances from another person or animal.
NCI

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