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osteomalacie

A condition marked by softening of the bones (due to impaired mineralization, with excess accumulation of osteoid), with pain, tenderness, muscular weakness, anorexia, and loss of weight, resulting from deficiency of vitamin D and calcium. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature cortical and spongy bone.
CSP

A condition in adults in which bones become soft and deformed because they don`t have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is usually caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet, not getting enough sunlight, or a problem with the way the body uses vitamin D. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. When the condition occurs in children, it is called rickets.
NCI

A metabolic bone disease that results from either a deficiency in vitamin D, or an abnormality in the metabolism of vitamin D, or a deficiency of calcium in the diet. The most common symptoms are bone pain and muscle weakness. When it occurs in children it is commonly referred to as rickets. (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, 3rd ed.) –2003
NCI

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endoftalmitida

Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the internal structures of the eye.
NCI

An infectious process affecting the internal structures of the eye.
NCI

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rtuť – isotopy

Stable mercury atoms that have the same atomic number as the element mercury, but differ in atomic weight. Hg-196, 198-201, and 204 are stable mercury isotopes.
MSH

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septum pellucidum – jádra

Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of forebrain and brainstem areas including the hippocampus, the lateral hypothalamus, the tegmentum, and the amygdala. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
MSH

Subdivision of the septum which contains the dorsal septal nucleus, the lateral septal nucleus, medial septal nucleus, triangular septal nucleus, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure and nucleus of stria terminalis.
FMA

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Candida albicans

etiologic agent of candidiasis.
CSP

A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
MSH

A species of diploid fungus in the phylum Ascomycota which is capable of mating but not of meiosis, and is a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans.
NCI

a kind of fungus that can cause yeast infection
CHV

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granulocyty

Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
MSH

leukocytes with abundant neutrophilic, eosinophilic or basophilic granules in the cytoplasm; mature granulocytes are the neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
CSP

A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granulocytes. A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

A leucocyte with conspicuous cytoplasmic granules. In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining properties of the granules into eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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ambulantní kliniky nemocniční

Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
MSH

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enteritida

Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
MSH

inflammation of the intestine, especially of the small intestine.
CSP

inflammation of the bowel
CHV

Inflammation of the small intestine.
NCI

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metabolismus

The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
MSH

sum of chemical changes that occur within the tissues of an organism consisting of anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism; the buildup and breakdown of molecules for utilization by the organism.
CSP

The chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism. These changes make energy and the materials cells and organisms need to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. Metabolism also helps get rid of toxic substances.
NCI

The chemical reactions and pathways, including anabolism and catabolism, by which living organisms transform chemical substances. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and replication, and protein synthesis and degradation. [GOC:go_curators, ISBN:0198547684]
GO

All the reactions in an organism concerned with storing and generating metabolic energy and with the biosynthesis of low-molecular weight compounds, energy-storage compounds, and basic materials needed for important life processes. It does not include nucleic acid and protein synthesis.
NCI

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Alkalická fosfatáza v séru NOS

A quantitative measurement of the amount of alkaline phosphatase present in a sample of serum.
NCI

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Capsicum

A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates vanilloid receptors. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
MSH

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skupinové procesy

The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.
MSH

procedures by which a group of individuals approach and solve their common objectives.
CSP

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oxazoly

Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
MSH

five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position.
CSP

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životní prostředí – znečištění

introduction into water, air, and soil, any chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use; also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.
CSP

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methacholinové sloučeniny

A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
MSH

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sexuální delikty

any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
CSP

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sirouhlík

A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
MSH

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guanosintrifosfát

Guanosine 5`-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
MSH

guanosine 5`-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate); a guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
CSP

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oxyfenon

A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.
MSH

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Methods aspects

Used with techniques, procedures, and programs for methods.
MSH

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šok hemoragický

Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
MSH

hemorrhage decreases the mean systemic filling pressure, therefore decreasing venous return; as a result, the cardiac output falls below normal, and shock ensues.
CSP

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karcinoid

A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
MSH

A slow-growing type of tumor usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the appendix), and sometimes in the lungs or other sites. Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
NCI

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers that usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or in the lungs. Because they grow slowly and don`t produce symptoms in the early stages, the average age of people diagnosed with digestive or lung carcinoids is about 60.

In later stages the tumors sometimes produce hormones that can cause carcinoid syndrome. The syndrome causes flushing of the face and upper chest, diarrhea, and trouble breathing.

Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven`t spread to other parts of the body, surgery can cure the cancer.


MEDLINEPLUS

A usually small, slowly growing tumor usually found in gastrointestinal tract
CHV

A slow growing neuroendocrine tumor, composed of uniform, round, or polygonal cells having monotonous, centrally located nuclei and small nucleoli, infrequent mitoses, and no necrosis. The tumor may show a variety of patterns, such as solid, trabecular, and acinar. Electron microscopy shows small secretory granules. Immunohistochemical studies reveal NSE, as well as chromogranin immunoreactivity. Malignant histology (cellular pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, necrosis, and mitoses) can occasionally be seen. Such cases may have an aggressive clinical course. Gastrointestinal tract and lung are common sites of involvement.
NCI

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hemonchiáza

Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.
MSH

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bolest

An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
MSH

unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli and generally received by specialized nerve endings.
CSP

Pain is a feeling triggered in the nervous system. Pain may be sharp or dull. It may come and go, or it may be constant. You may feel pain in one area of your body, such as your back, abdomen or chest or you may feel pain all over, such as when your muscles ache from the flu.

Pain can be helpful in diagnosing a problem. Without pain, you might seriously hurt yourself without knowing it, or you might not realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. Once you take care of the problem, pain usually goes away. However, sometimes pain goes on for weeks, months or even years. This is called chronic pain. Sometimes chronic pain is due to an ongoing cause, such as cancer or arthritis. Sometimes the cause is unknown.

Fortunately, there are many ways to treat pain. Treatment varies depending on the cause of pain. Pain relievers, acupuncture and sometimes surgery are helpful.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the sensation of marked discomfort, distress or agony.
NCI

The sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony, resulting from the stimulation of specialized nerve endings.
NCI

Causing physical or psychological misery, pain or distress.
NCI

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methylhistaminy

Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.
MSH

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sigma faktor

A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
MSH

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srdce – minutový objem nízký

A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
MSH

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hamartom

A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.
MSH

A benign (not cancer) growth made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissues normally found in the area of the body where the growth occurs.
NCI

A benign and excessive tumor-like growth of mature cells and normal tissues which grow in a disorganized pattern.
NCI

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pankreas

A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
MSH

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
UWDA

mixed exocrine and endocrine gland situated transversely across the posterior abdominal wall in the epigastric and hypochondriac regions; endocrine portion is comprised of the islets of Langerhans, and the exocrine portion is a compound acinar gland that secretes digestive enzymes.
CSP

Having to do with the pancreas.
NCI

A glandular organ located in the abdomen. It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. The pancreas is surrounded by the stomach, intestines, and other organs.
NCI

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
FMA

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (NCI)
NCI

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (from Diabetes Dictionary: http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/dictionary)
NCI

Of or pertaining to the pancreas.
NCI

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metrizoát

A diagnostic radiopaque that usually occurs as the sodium salt.
MSH

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