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oogeneze

The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
MSH

process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through oogonia to the mature haploid ova.
CSP

The complete process of formation and maturation of an ovum or female gamete from a primordial female germ cell. Examples of this process are found in Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. [GOC:kmv, GOC:mtg_sensu]
GO

The development of ovum, which are the female germ cells. Oogenesis occurs by meiosis and is essential for the production of mature eggs.
NCI

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deoxyribodipyrimidinfotolyasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
MSH

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biologická odpověď – modifikátory

a diversity of reagents employed for nonspecific active immunization; used to enhance the immune response; 4 major groups: bacterial products, synthetic molecules, cytokines, and hormones.
CSP

Substances that enhance, restore or alter the host`s immune system. Immunomodulating agents can be preventive or therapeutic and can suppress or activate the immune system, either directly or indirectly. For cancer treatment purposes, immunomodulating agents can be used to prevent or inhibit tumorigenesis. Examples of immunomodulators include, but are not limited to, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.
NCI

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medazepam

A benzodiazepine derivative used in the treatment of anxiety. It has sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. One of its metabolites is DIAZEPAM and one of its excretion products is OXAZEPAM.
MSH

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kyretáž zubní

Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
MSH

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glukokortikoidy

A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
MSH

group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism, inhibit corticotropin secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity; they also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
CSP

A compound that belongs to the family of compounds called corticosteroids (steroids). Glucocorticoids affect metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They may be naturally produced (hormones) or synthetic (drugs).
NCI

A group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism (gluconeogenesis, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of blood sugar), inhibit corticotropin secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system. (MSH2002_06_01)
NCI

Synthetically derived forms of the naturally occurring Glucocorticoids.
NCI

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chiasma opticum

The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
MSH

hypothalamic structure formed by the crossing of optic nerve fibers from the medial half of each retina.
CSP

An anatomy term for an X-shaped crossing (for example, of nerves or tendons).
NCI

Nerve trunk which is continuous with right and left optic nerves and right and left optic tracts.
FMA

An anatomic structure formed by the crossing of the two optic nerves under the hypothalamus.
NCI

The place in the brain where some of the optic nerve fibers coming from one eye cross optic nerve fibers from the other eye.
NCI

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dolichol

Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
MSH

20-unit isoprenoid found in eukaryotes; serves as membrane anchor for oligosaccharide assembly in rough endoplasmic reticulum during protein glycosylation.
CSP

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deprese bipolární

severe disorder characterized by one or more manic episodes; although diagnosis does not require a major depressive episode, virtually all cases eventually develop one.
CSP

The depressive stage of bipolar disorder.
NCI

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sekretářky ve zdravotnictví

Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
MSH

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Schizophyllum

A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.
MSH

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glutaminasa

Encoded by human GA Gene, the 602-amino acid 66 kD (precursor) Glutaminase (GA Family) has a putative N-terminal mitochondrial import presequence. Expressed in liver, brain, and pancreas, but not in kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, or placenta, GA protein shares 94% and 72% sequence identity with rat liver and kidney glutaminases, respectively. Containing two ankyrin repeats, human glutaminase is most similar to rat liver-type glutaminase, but is not liver specific. Involved in regulation of glutamine catabolism, mitochondrial glutaminase converts L-glutamine to L-glutamate and NH3. Glutaminase expression and activity depend on the cell proliferation state with highest levels at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. (NCI)
NCI

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orgánová specificita

Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
MSH

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doxorubicin

Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
MSH

antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius; a hydroxy derivative of daunorubicin.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat many types of cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Doxorubicin comes from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. It damages DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic.
NCI

a kind of cancer treatment drug
CHV

An anthracycline antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Doxorubicin, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius, is the hydroxylated congener of daunorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix, thereby preventing DNA replication and ultimately inhibiting protein synthesis. Additionally, doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II which results in an increased and stabilized cleavable enzyme-DNA linked complex during DNA replication and subsequently prevents the ligation of the nucleotide strand after double-strand breakage. Doxorubicin also forms oxygen free radicals resulting in cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids; the formation of oxygen free radicals also contributes to the toxicity of the anthracycline antibiotics, namely the cardiac and cutaneous vascular effects.
NCI

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močový měchýř – obstrukce

Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.
MSH

Blockage of the opening between the bladder and the urethra resulting in the reduction or prevention of the urine flow from the bladder into the urethra.
NCI

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meglumin

1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
MSH

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sklerodermie lokalizovaná

A chronic disorder, possibly autoimmune, marked by excessive production of collagen which results in hardening and thickening of body tissues. Localized scleroderma typically affects the skin, with formation of patches or lines of thick and unyielding tissue; there can be muscle and underlying tissue involvement as well as occasional joint complications. The affected areas of skin can be restrictive and disfiguring. The shape, depth and location of the affected area is used to classify one of the four types of local scleroderma. An individual can have a combination of localized scleroderma types.
NCI

A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.
MSH

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glykogenóza

A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.
MSH

any of a group of metabolic disorders characterized by excessive storage of glycogen.
CSP

An inherited metabolic disorder characterized either by defects in glycogen synthesis or defects in the breaking down of glycogen. It results either in the creation of abnormal forms of glycogen or accumulation of glycogen in the tissues.
NCI

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ornithinkarbamoyltransferasa

A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
MSH

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrial (354 aa, ~40 kDa) is encoded by the human OTC gene. This protein plays a role in the metabolism of ornithine.
NCI

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léky – modelování struktury

The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
MSH

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krevní oběh

The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
MSH

general term for blood supply and flow through tissues and organs.
CSP

The flow of blood through the body of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products. [GOC:mtg_heart, ISBN:0192800825]
GO

In the body, the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels, and the flow of lymph through the lymph vessels.
NCI

The movement of blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body`s organs, tissues, and cells through the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries. (NCI)
NCI

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membránové proteiny

Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
MSH

proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes; consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins; includes most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors; note that individual membrane proteins have not been exhaustively treed under this term.
CSP

Proteins that are physically associated with the membrane. This class of proteins resides in cellular or intracellular membranes. The physical association of each protein is divided into two classes: integral and peripheral.
NCI

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mazové žlázy – nádory

new abnormal sebaceous gland tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

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glycylglycin

The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
MSH

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oscilometrie

The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
MSH

study of the records of oscillations in electric current waveform.
CSP

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Duaneův retrakční syndrom

A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
MSH

A rare disorder affecting the muscles of the eye. It is characterized by an abnormal contraction of some eye muscles and failure of contraction of other eye muscles. It leads to limited abduction and adduction of the affected eye.
NCI

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krevní transfúze

The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream.
CSP

The injection of whole blood or a blood component directly into the bloodstream.
NCI

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menopauza

The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
MSH

cessation of menstruation in the human female, usually occurring around the age of 50.
CSP

The time of life when a woman`s ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods stop. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn`t had a period for 12 months in a row. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility.
NCI

Cessation of menstruation, occurring in (e.g.) the human female usually around the age of 50. [GOC:curators, PMID:18495681]
GO

Menopause is the time in a woman`s life when her period stops. It usually occurs naturally, most often after age 45. Menopause happens because the woman`s ovary stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

A woman has reached menopause when she has not had a period for one year. Changes and symptoms can start several years earlier. They include

  • A change in periods – shorter or longer, lighter or heavier, with more or less time in between
  • Hot flashes and/or night sweats
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Mood swings
  • Trouble focusing
  • Less hair on head, more on face

Some symptoms require treatment. Talk to your doctor about how to best manage menopause. Make sure the doctor knows your medical history and your family medical history. This includes whether you are at risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, or breast cancer.

National Women`s Health Information Center


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

The permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 6 to 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
NCI

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autostimulace

Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
MSH

stimulation which is self-administered; the stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
CSP

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gonády

The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
MSH

gamete-producing glands.
CSP

General anatomical term which refers to ovary or testis.
FMA

The part of the reproductive system that produces and releases eggs (ovaries) or sperm (testicles/testes).
NCI

A reproductive system organ that produces and releases either sperm (testis) or eggs (ovary).
NCI

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