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čich

The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
MSH

sensation or perception of scents or odors; sense of smell.
CSP

The series of events required for an organism to receive an olfactory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Olfaction involves the detection of chemical composition of an organism`s ambient medium by chemoreceptors. This is a neurological process. [GOC:ai, http://www.onelook.com/]
GO

The sense of smell.
NCI

The faculty of smell.
NCI

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Guillainův-Barrého syndrom

An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
MSH

progressive ascending motor neuron paralysis of unknown etiology, frequently following an enteric or respiratory infection.
CSP

Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disorder that causes your immune system to attack your peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS nerves connect your brain and spinal cord with the rest of your body. Damage to these nerves makes it hard for them to transmit signals. As a result, your muscles have trouble responding to your brain. No one knows what causes the syndrome. Sometimes it is triggered by an infection, surgery or a vaccination.

The first symptom is usually weakness or a tingling feeling in your legs. The feeling can spread to your upper body. In severe cases, you become almost paralyzed. This is life-threatening. You might need a respirator to breathe. Symptoms usually worsen over a period of weeks, then stabilize. Most people recover. Recovery can take a few weeks to a few years. Treatment options during the symptom period include medicines or a procedure called plasma exchange.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

An acute, autoimmune inflammatory process affecting the peripheral nervous system and nerve roots. It results in demyelination. It is often caused by an acute viral or bacterial infection.
NCI

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dekarboxylace

The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
MSH

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parasympatický nervový systém

The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
MSH

craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system; generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system; cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord; they synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs.
CSP

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arachnodaktýlie

An abnormal bone development that is characterized by extra long and slender hands and fingers, such that the clenched thumb extends beyond the ulnar side of the hand. Arachnodactyly can include feet and toes. Arachnodactyly has been associated with several gene mutations and syndromes.
MSH

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methoxsalen

A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.
MSH

A drug used together with UV light to treat psoriasis, vitiligo, and skin nodules of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease. It belongs to the family of drugs called psoralens and furocoumarins.
NCI

A naturally occurring substance isolated from the seeds of the plant Ammi majus with photoactivating properties. As a member of the family of compounds known as psoralens or furocoumarins, methoxsalen`s exact mechanism of action is unknown; upon photoactivation, methoxsalen has been observed to bind covalently to and crosslink DNA. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39499&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39499&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C643″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A naturally occurring substance isolated from the seeds of the plant Ammi majus with photoactivating properties. As a member of the family of compounds known as psoralens or furocoumarins, methoxsalen`s exact mechanism of action is unknown; upon photoactivation, methoxsalen has been observed to bind covalently to and crosslink DNA. (NCI04)
NCI

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sociální izolace

The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
MSH

A condition in which an individual feels or is made to feel as though he or she has no place within society. This is often the case with persons who have inadequate support systems or who suffer from stigmatized disease, such as AIDS and mental illness.
NCI

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hafnium

Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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poruchy polykání

Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
MSH

Difficulty swallowing.
NCI

difficulty in swallowing.
CSP

If you have a swallowing disorder, you may have difficulty swallowing and may also have pain while swallowing. Some people may be completely unable to swallow or may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods or saliva. This makes it hard to eat. Often, it can be difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish your body.

Anyone can have a swallowing disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. Swallowing problems often happen because of other conditions, including

  • Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson`s disease and cerebral palsy
  • Problems with your esophagus, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Stroke
  • Head or spinal cord injury
  • Cancer of the head, neck, or esophagus

Medicines can help some people, while others may need surgery. Swallowing treatment with a speech-language pathologist can help. You may find it helpful to change your diet or hold your head or neck in a certain way when you eat. In very serious cases, people may need feeding tubes.

NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by difficulty in swallowing.
NCI

A symptom referring to difficulty in swallowing. It may be observed in patients with stroke, motor neuron disorders, cancer of the throat or mouth, head and neck injuries, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis.
NCI

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parotitida

INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.
MSH

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Arkansas

A state in the southern midwest United States. Its capital is Little Rock.
NCI

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methylmetakryláty

The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
MSH

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sociometrie – techniky

Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.
MSH

quantitative assessment of interpersonal and group relationships, often used to identify patterns of group behavior or structure.
CSP

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ruka – deformity získané

Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.
MSH

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demokracie

A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
MSH

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patologické procesy

The abnormal mechanisms and forms involved in the dysfunctions of tissues and organs.
MSH

abnormal mechanisms and forms involved in the dysfunctions of tissues and organs.
CSP

A biologic function or a process having an abnormal or deleterious effect at the subcellular, cellular, multicellular, or organismal level.
NCI

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arteritida

INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.
MSH

inflammation of an artery.
CSP

An inflammatory process affecting an artery.
NCI

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mexiletin

Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.
MSH

antiarrhythmia agent pharmacologically similar to lidocaine.
CSP

A local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic (Class IB) agent structurally related to lidocaine. Mexiletine exerts its antiarrhythmic effect by inhibiting the inward sodium current in cardiac cells, thereby reducing the rate of rise of the cardiac action potential (phase 0) and decreases automaticity in the Purkinje fibers. This slows nerve impulses in the heart and stabilizes the heartbeat. Mexiletine`s anesthetic activity is due to its ability to block sodium influx in peripheral nerves, thereby reducing the rate and intensity of pain impulses reaching the central nervous system.
NCI

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měkké tkáně – poranění

Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as “soft tissue injuries of the hand”.
MSH

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Headgear, orthodontie

An extraoral orthodontic appliance designed to create traction for growth modification, tooth movement and anchorage.
NCI

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zubní sklovina – hypoplazie

An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
MSH

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exspirační průtoková rychlost – vrchol

Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
MSH

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azbestóza

A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
MSH

A lung disorder caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. It results in fibrosis of the lung parenchyma. Signs and symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath and chest pain.
NCI

A lung disease caused by breathing in particles of asbestos (a group of minerals that take the form of tiny fibers). Symptoms include coughing, trouble breathing, and chest pain caused by scarring and permanent damage to lung tissue. Asbestosis increases the risk of lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma (cancer found in the lining of the lungs, chest, or abdomen).
NCI

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mikropočítače

Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. “Microprocessor” may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
MSH

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saze

Black particulate matter formed as by-products of combustion or pyrolysis of organic (carbon-containing) materials, such as coal, wood, fuel oil, waste oil, paper, plastics and household refuse. Their chemical compositions and physical properties are highly variable and depend on the type of starting material and the combustion conditions. Chemically, soots vary with respect to their relative amounts of carbon and the types of organic and inorganic compounds adsorbed to the particles. Physically, soots vary with respect to their particle types, sizes, and shapes. The primary routes of potential human exposure to soots are inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. The general population may be exposed to soots from fireplaces, furnaces, engine exhaust and particulate emissions from any combustion source. These are known to be human carcinogens. (NCI05)
NCI

A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
MSH

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zdravotnictví – priority

Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
MSH

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zubní náhrady – design

The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
MSH

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pemfigoid bulózní

A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
MSH

An autoimmune chronic skin disorder characterized by the presence of large blisters. It usually affects elderly people and tends to subside spontaneously.
NCI

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aspartát-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
MSH

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Microsporum

A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)
MSH

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