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biofyzika

The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
MSH

study of biological structures and processes in terms of principles of physics.
CSP

Physics as applied to biological problems; an interdisciplinary science that applies theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology.
NCI

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chirurgie veterinární

A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
MSH

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porod – komplikace

medical problems associated with childbirth including cephalopelvic disproportion, hemorrhage, or fetal distress.
CSP

Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
MSH

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mor

An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
MSH

acute infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites; bubonic plague is the most common form.
CSP

Plague is an infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The bacteria are found mainly in rats and in the fleas that feed on them. People and other animals can get plague from rat or flea bites. Historically, plague destroyed entire civilizations. In the 1300s, the “Black Death,” as it was called, killed approximately one-third of Europe`s population. Today plague is uncommon. This is largely due to better living conditions and antibiotics.

There are three forms of plague:

  • Bubonic, which causes the tonsils, adenoids, spleen and thymus to become inflamed. Symptoms include fever, aches, chills and tender lymph glands
  • Septicemic, in which bacteria multiply in the blood. It causes fever, chills, shock and bleeding under the skin or other organs
  • Pneumonic, in which the bacteria enter the lungs and cause pneumonia. People with the infection can spread this form to others. This type could be a bioterror agent

Treatment for plague is a strong antibiotic. There is no vaccine for plague.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A Gram-negative bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis. It is usually transmitted to humans from bites of infected rodent fleas. It is manifested as a bubonic, septicemic, or pneumonic plague. In bubonic plague, the lymph nodes adjacent to the site of the skin bite are infected and enlarged. In septicemic plague, the infection spreads directly through the bloodstream. In pneumonic plague, the infection spreads to the lungs either following bubonic plague, or by inhalation of infective droplets. If untreated, it may lead to death.
NCI

an infectious disease
CHV

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lékové formy

Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect. They include CAPSULES; LINIMENTS; OINTMENTS; PHARMACEUTICAL SOLUTIONS; POWDERS; TABLETS; etc.
MSH

forms in which chemical products can be manufactured or administered.
CSP

The form in which active and/or inert ingredient(s) are physically presented.
NCI

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farnesol

A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
MSH

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skus – síla

The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
MSH

force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
CSP

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sladidla

Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

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Lactobacillaceae

family of gram positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices; a few species are highly pathogenic.
CSP

A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
MSH

A taxonomic family of bacterium that ferment carbohydrates into lactic acid, in the phylum Firmicutes that includes the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, among others.
NCI

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plasminogen – aktivátor tkáňového typu

A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
MSH

A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA is a serine protease which converts plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. Upon administration, recombinant tPA increases plasmin enzymatic activity, resulting in hyperfibrinolysis and potential dissolution of a thrombus or embolism. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42033&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42033&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C39607″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). tPA is a serine protease which converts plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. Upon administration, alteplase increases plasmin enzymatic activity, resulting in hyperfibrinolysis and potential dissolution of a thrombus or embolism.
NCI

a kind of clot-dissolving enzyme
CHV

An enzyme made in the body that helps dissolve blood clots. A form of this enzyme is made in the laboratory to treat heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the lungs. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. Tissue plasminogen activator is a type of systemic thrombolytic agent.
NCI

A form of tissue plasminogen activator that is made in the laboratory. It helps dissolve blood clots and is used to treat heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the lungs. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of systemic thrombolytic agent.
NCI

Tissue Plasminogen Activator isoforms 1 (562-aa, 63-kD), 2 (291-aa, frameshifted with distinct C-terminus), and 3 (516-aa, deleted Ex4) are encoded by human PLAT Gene (Peptidase S1 Family). EGF-like, fibronectin I, and kringle domains mediate fibrin, LRP1, annexin II, and cytokeratin 8 binding. TPA also binds to laminin, fibronectin, and mannose receptor. Inhibited by PAI-1, serine protease TPA is widely expressed as an active single chain, then secreted, and cleaved by plasmin, tissue kallikrein, or factor XA to a fully active disulfide linked A/B-protein; N-heavy chain and C-light chain. Important in cell migration and tissue remodeling, TPA activates (increased by fibrin or heparin) plasminogen to fibrinolytic plasmin conversion by hydrolyzing a specific Arg-Val bond. Altered activity causes hyper- or hypofibrinolysis. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
NCI

Tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT) is a serine protease that activates the proenzyme plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn is responsible for fibrinolytic activity. PLAT is synthesized in vascular endothelial cells as a single polypeptide chain. Proteolytic cleavage of the single chain protein at a centrally located arginine-isoleucine bond by plasmin gives rise to a 2-chain disulfide-linked form, composed of the N-terminally derived heavy chain and the C-terminal light chain.
NCI

A secreted serine protease which converts the proenzyme plasminogen to plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is synthesized as a single chain which is cleaved by plasmin to a two chain disulfide linked protein. This enzyme plays a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling. Increased enzymatic activity causes hyperfibrinolysis, which manifests as excessive bleeding; decreased activity leads to hypofibrinolysis which can result in thrombosis or embolism. (from LocusLink)
NCI

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utonutí

Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.
MSH

If you are under water long enough, your lungs fill with water and oxygen cannot get into your blood. A lack of blood oxygen can cause brain damage and death. Water in the lungs, especially contaminated water, can damage the lungs.

People can drown in as little as an inch or two of water. Babies can drown in a sink or bathtub. Most preschooler drownings occur in swimming pools. People who have seizure disorders are also at risk in the water. Drowning can happen quickly and silently.

Drowning precautions should include

  • Fences around pools
  • Supervising children near any body of water, including tubs
  • Not swimming or boating when under the influence of alcohol or sedatives
  • Wearing life jackets when boating
  • Learning CPR


MEDLINEPLUS

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alkoholická steatóza jater

Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
MSH

lipid infiltration and fatty degeneration of liver parenchymal cells due to alcohol abuse; may be associated with alcohol hepatitis or cirrhosis.
CSP

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blefaritida

Inflammation of the eyelids.
MSH

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synovitida

Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

Inflammation of a synovial membrane.
NCI

inflammation of the synovial membrane (joint membrane)
CHV

Inflammation (swelling, pain, and warmth) of a synovial membrane, which is a layer of connective tissue that lines a joint, such as the hip, knee, ankle, or shoulder. Synovitis is caused by some types of arthritis and other diseases.
NCI

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jazyková terapie

Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
MSH

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Platypus

A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
MSH

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kombinovaná farmakoterapie

Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
MSH

combination of drugs in therapy; use in addition to the specific kind of chemotherapy, the specific drugs being used and drug function.
CSP

Drug therapy with two or more drugs given separately or together for a combined effect.
NCI

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femur

The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
MSH

longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
CSP

The upper leg bone positioned between the pelvis and the knee. (NCI)
NCI

The upper leg bone positioned between the pelvis and the knee.
NCI

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trombocyty – poruchy

disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
CSP

qualitative disorder of the blood platelets, due mainly to deficiency of platelet factor 3.
CSP

Platelets are little pieces of blood cells. Platelets help wounds heal and prevent bleeding by forming blood clots. Your bone marrow makes platelets. Problems can result from having too few or too many platelets, or from platelets that do not work properly.

If your blood has a low number of platelets, you can be at risk for mild to serious bleeding. If your blood has too many platelets, you may have a higher risk of blood clots. With other platelet disorders, the platelets do not work as they should. For example, in von Willebrand Disease, the platelets cannot stick together or cannot attach to blood vessel walls. This can cause excessive bleeding.

Treatment of platelet disorders depends on the cause.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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tachykininy

A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
MSH

family of peptides structurally similar to substance P and sharing some biological actions; all are potent, rapidly acting secretagogues and cause smooth muscle contraction and vasodilation.
CSP

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leváctví – praváctví

preferential use of the hand of one side in voluntary motor acts.
CSP

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pneumonie lipidová

Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.
MSH

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Dupuytrenova kontraktura

A fibromatosis of the palmar fascia characterized by thickening and contracture of the fibrous bands on the palmar surfaces of the hand and fingers. It arises most commonly in men between the ages of 30 and 50.
MSH

A superficial fibromatosis arising from the soft tissue of the palm. It is characterized by the presence of spindle-shaped fibroblasts, and an infiltrative growth pattern. It predominantly affects adult males.
NCI

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Fertility Rate

Births in 1 year x 1,000/number of women aged 15-44 at midyear.
MSH

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Modrý kříž

Health insurance plan for hospital costs and related services.
MSH

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chuť – poruchy

Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
MSH

conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception; taste disorders are frequently associated with olfaction disorders; additional potential etiologies include metabolic diseases, drug toxicity, and taste pathway disorders (e.g., taste bud diseases, facial nerve diseases, glossopharyngeal nerve diseases, and brain stem diseases).
CSP

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pijavky

annelids of the class Hirudinea; some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man; medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
CSP

Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
MSH

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politika – provádění

The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
MSH

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dystymie

Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
MSH

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vláknová optika – technologie

branch of science concerned with optic fibers, which are transparent thin fibers, as small as a human hair, used for the transmission of light; optic fibers can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking; may be made of plastic or glass.
CSP

The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
MSH

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