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oogeneze

The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
MSH

process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through oogonia to the mature haploid ova.
CSP

The complete process of formation and maturation of an ovum or female gamete from a primordial female germ cell. Examples of this process are found in Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. [GOC:kmv, GOC:mtg_sensu]
GO

The development of ovum, which are the female germ cells. Oogenesis occurs by meiosis and is essential for the production of mature eggs.
NCI

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endoftalmitida

Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the internal structures of the eye.
NCI

An infectious process affecting the internal structures of the eye.
NCI

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Candida albicans

etiologic agent of candidiasis.
CSP

A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
MSH

A species of diploid fungus in the phylum Ascomycota which is capable of mating but not of meiosis, and is a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans.
NCI

a kind of fungus that can cause yeast infection
CHV

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mamografie

Radiographic examination of the breast.
MSH

radiography of the mammary gland.
CSP

The use of film or a computer to create a picture of the breast.
NCI

An x-ray of the breast.
NCI

A mammogram is a special type of X-ray of the breasts. Mammograms can show tumors long before they are big enough for you or your health care provider to feel. They are recommended for women who have symptoms of breast cancer or who have a high risk of the disease. You and your health care provider should discuss when to start having mammograms and how often to get one.

Mammograms are quick and easy. You stand in front of an X-ray machine. The person who takes the X-rays places your breast between two plastic plates. The plates press your breast and make it flat. This may be uncomfortable, but it helps get a clear picture. You will have an X-ray of each breast. A mammogram takes only a few seconds and it can help save your life.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A type of radiography used specifically to examine breast tissue. The procedure utilizes a low-dose of x-rays or radiation to generate an image. A mammography exam or mammogram, is used as a screening tool to detect early breast cancer in women experiencing no symptoms and to detect and diagnose breast disease.
NCI

A low voltage X-ray photograph of the breast generally done to detect breast cancer. This method is also valuable in diagnosis of benign abnormal conditions of the breast such as fibroadenoma, mastitis, abscess, and cysts.
NCI

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kyretáž zubní

Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
MSH

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geny dominantní

Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
MSH

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chiasma opticum

The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
MSH

hypothalamic structure formed by the crossing of optic nerve fibers from the medial half of each retina.
CSP

An anatomy term for an X-shaped crossing (for example, of nerves or tendons).
NCI

Nerve trunk which is continuous with right and left optic nerves and right and left optic tracts.
FMA

An anatomic structure formed by the crossing of the two optic nerves under the hypothalamus.
NCI

The place in the brain where some of the optic nerve fibers coming from one eye cross optic nerve fibers from the other eye.
NCI

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enteritida

Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
MSH

inflammation of the intestine, especially of the small intestine.
CSP

inflammation of the bowel
CHV

Inflammation of the small intestine.
NCI

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Capsicum

A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates vanilloid receptors. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
MSH

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mannosafosfáty

Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
MSH

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Schizophyllum

A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.
MSH

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genetika

The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance; the study of genes and their heredity.
CSP

The study of genes and heredity. Heredity is the passing of genetic information and traits (such as eye color and an increased chance of getting a certain disease) from parents to offspring.
NCI

The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms
NCI

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orgánová specificita

Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
MSH

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životní prostředí – znečištění

introduction into water, air, and soil, any chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use; also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.
CSP

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sirouhlík

A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
MSH

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marketink zdravotnických služeb

Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
MSH

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sklerodermie lokalizovaná

A chronic disorder, possibly autoimmune, marked by excessive production of collagen which results in hardening and thickening of body tissues. Localized scleroderma typically affects the skin, with formation of patches or lines of thick and unyielding tissue; there can be muscle and underlying tissue involvement as well as occasional joint complications. The affected areas of skin can be restrictive and disfiguring. The shape, depth and location of the affected area is used to classify one of the four types of local scleroderma. An individual can have a combination of localized scleroderma types.
NCI

A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.
MSH

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Geotrichum

A mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungal genus, various species of which have been isolated from pulmonary lesions. Teleomorphs include Dipodascus and Galactomyces.
MSH

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ornithinkarbamoyltransferasa

A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
MSH

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrial (354 aa, ~40 kDa) is encoded by the human OTC gene. This protein plays a role in the metabolism of ornithine.
NCI

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karcinoid

A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
MSH

A slow-growing type of tumor usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the appendix), and sometimes in the lungs or other sites. Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
NCI

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers that usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or in the lungs. Because they grow slowly and don`t produce symptoms in the early stages, the average age of people diagnosed with digestive or lung carcinoids is about 60.

In later stages the tumors sometimes produce hormones that can cause carcinoid syndrome. The syndrome causes flushing of the face and upper chest, diarrhea, and trouble breathing.

Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven`t spread to other parts of the body, surgery can cure the cancer.


MEDLINEPLUS

A usually small, slowly growing tumor usually found in gastrointestinal tract
CHV

A slow growing neuroendocrine tumor, composed of uniform, round, or polygonal cells having monotonous, centrally located nuclei and small nucleoli, infrequent mitoses, and no necrosis. The tumor may show a variety of patterns, such as solid, trabecular, and acinar. Electron microscopy shows small secretory granules. Immunohistochemical studies reveal NSE, as well as chromogranin immunoreactivity. Malignant histology (cellular pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, necrosis, and mitoses) can occasionally be seen. Such cases may have an aggressive clinical course. Gastrointestinal tract and lung are common sites of involvement.
NCI

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mastitida

INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.
MSH

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mazové žlázy – nádory

new abnormal sebaceous gland tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

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gibereliny

A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
MSH

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oscilometrie

The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
MSH

study of the records of oscillations in electric current waveform.
CSP

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srdce – minutový objem nízký

A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
MSH

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sinus maxillaris

The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
MSH

A pyramidal-shaped, thin-walled, air-filled cavity located in the maxilla. It is lined by mucus membrane and periosteum (mucoperiosteum) which contains cilia. It is adjacent to the nasal cavity and communicates with the middle meatus of the nose. It is the largest paranasal sinus and is composed of three recesses: alveolar, zygomatic, and infraorbital. (NCI)
NCI

A type of paranasal sinus (a hollow space in the bones around the nose). There are two large maxillary sinuses, one in each of the maxillary bones, which are in the cheek area next to the nose. The maxillary sinuses are lined with cells that make mucus to keep the nose from drying out.
NCI

A pyramidal-shaped, thin-walled, air-filled cavity located in the maxilla. It is lined by mucus membrane and periosteum (mucoperiosteum) which contains cilia. It is adjacent to the nasal cavity and communicates with the middle meatus of the nose. It is the largest paranasal sinus and is composed of three recesses: alveolar, zygomatic, and infraorbital.
NCI

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autostimulace

Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
MSH

stimulation which is self-administered; the stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
CSP

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gliklazid

An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.
MSH

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osteomalacie

A condition marked by softening of the bones (due to impaired mineralization, with excess accumulation of osteoid), with pain, tenderness, muscular weakness, anorexia, and loss of weight, resulting from deficiency of vitamin D and calcium. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature cortical and spongy bone.
CSP

A condition in adults in which bones become soft and deformed because they don`t have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is usually caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet, not getting enough sunlight, or a problem with the way the body uses vitamin D. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. When the condition occurs in children, it is called rickets.
NCI

A metabolic bone disease that results from either a deficiency in vitamin D, or an abnormality in the metabolism of vitamin D, or a deficiency of calcium in the diet. The most common symptoms are bone pain and muscle weakness. When it occurs in children it is commonly referred to as rickets. (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, 3rd ed.) –2003
NCI

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Carnivora

have 4 or 5 clawed toes, mobile limbs, carnassal molars, bihorned uterus; primarily eat flesh; can be terrestrial or aquatic.
CSP

An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
MSH

A diverse taxonomic order of placental mammals that includes bears, dogs, cats, and ferrets. Carnivora are primarily meat eaters, however bears are omnivorous and herbivorous pandas may consume fish and insects.
NCI

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