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Nocardia

A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
MSH

A genus of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the phylum Actinobacteria.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Nocardia genus level.
NCI

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kosti – cysty

Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
MSH

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iminy

molecule containing a nitrogen atom attached to a carbon atom by a double bond; the nitrogen is also covalently linked to a hydrogen.
CSP

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tegmentum mesencephali

The portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the forebrain with the hindbrain. Ventral midbrain also contains three colorful structures: the grey matter (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
MSH

dorsal part of the mesencephalon, formed by continuation of the dorsal cerebral peduncles across the median plane, and extending on each side from the substantia nigra to the mesencephalic aqueduct.
CSP

Subdivision of the midbrain lying anterior to the tectum and posterior to the substantia nigra and cerebral peduncle.
FMA

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polycyklické uhlovodíky aromatické

A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
MSH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a large class of organic compounds containing two or more fused aromatic rings made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They have high melting and boiling-points, low vapour pressure, water solubility, and are highly lipophilic. PAH are produced during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic matter, are found in cigarette smoke, motor vehicle exhaust, used motor lubricating oil, broiled meat, coal tar, crude oil, creosote, roofing tar, dyes, plastics, and pesticides. Some members of PAH class were shown to have carcinogenic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic properties, developmental toxicity and affect reproductive health. (NCI)
NCI

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Echinodermata

6,000 modern species; adults are radially symmetrical and have an endoskeleton of calcareous ossicles, partitioned coelum, uncentralized nervous system, and no excretory organs; are exclusively marine.
CSP

A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
MSH

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norgestrel

A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
MSH

A synthetic progestin commonly used alone or in combination with an estrogen for contraception. Norgestrel suppresses the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH), thickens cervical mucus, and slows the transit of ova through the fallopian tubes. This agent also exhibits antiproliferative activity in endometrial tissue and may exhibit chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities in endometrial carcinoma. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39310&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39310&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C703″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic progestin commonly used alone or in combination with an estrogen for contraception. Norgestrel suppresses the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH), thickens cervical mucus, and slows the transit of ova through the fallopian tubes. This agent also exhibits antiproliferative activity in endometrial tissue and may exhibit chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities in endometrial carcinoma. (NCI04)
NCI

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Bordetella

A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
MSH

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Bordetella genus level.
NCI

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imunogenetika

A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
MSH

subdiscipline of genetics (the branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance) which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response.
CSP

A sub-field of genetics that uses both genetic and immunological analyses to study the genetics behind antibody formation and the immune response. (Biotech Life Science Dictionary)
NCI

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teniposid

A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.
MSH

An anticancer drug that is a podophyllotoxin derivative and belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors.
NCI

a kind of cancer treatment drug
CHV

A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin with antineoplastic activity. Teniposide forms a ternary complex with the enzyme topoisomerase II and DNA, resulting in dose-dependent single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA, DNA: protein cross-links, inhibition of DNA strand religation, and cytotoxicity. This agent acts in the late S or early G phase of the cell cycle. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43671&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43671&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C857″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin with antineoplastic activity. Teniposide forms a ternary complex with the enzyme topoisomerase II and DNA, resulting in dose-dependent single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA, DNA: protein cross-links, inhibition of DNA strand religation, and cytotoxicity. This agent acts in the late S or early G phase of the cell cycle. (NCI04)
NCI

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Polyneuritida

clinical syndrome characterized by widespread involvement of peripheral nerves, weakness, sensory loss, and impairment of reflexes.
CSP

Inflammation of several peripheral nerves at the same time.
NCI

Inflammation of multiple nerves.
MSH

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ektyma

An ulcerative pyoderma usually caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection at the site of minor trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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Bowenova nemoc

A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)
MSH

A form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. It is a distinct clinicopathological entity and arises from the skin or the mucocutaneous junction. It affects predominantly white males in their 6-8th decades of life. Exposed and non-exposed skin sites are equally affected. UV damage and ingestion of inorganic arsenic may play a role in the development of the disease. On the skin surface, it presents as a single or multiple erythematous, scaly, keratotic patches or plaques. The clinical entity of erythroplasia of Queyrat is regarded as Bowen disease of the penis and it presents as an asymptomatic, red, circumscribed plaque. Morphologically, Bowen disease is characterized by the presence of hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, dyskeratosis, and acanthosis. The keratotic squamous cells are atypical and display hyperchromatism and abnormal mitotic figures. The dermoepidermal basement membrane is intact. Complete surgical removal of the lesion may be curative.
NCI

A skin disease marked by scaly or thickened patches on the skin and often caused by prolonged exposure to arsenic. The patches often occur on sun-exposed areas of the skin and in older white men. These patches may become malignant (cancer).
NCI

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imunologické testy

Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
MSH

Laboratory test involving interaction of antigens with specific antibodies.
NCI

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testosteron

A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
MSH

major androgenic hormone produced by the Leydig cells of the testes.
CSP

A hormone made mainly in the testes (part of the male reproductive system). It is needed to develop and maintain male sex characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle growth. Testosterone may also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat certain medical conditions.
NCI

A synthetic form of the endogenous androgenic steroid testosterone. Due to rapid metabolism by the liver, therapeutic testosterone is generally administered as an ester derivative. This agent and its derivatives promote the maintenance of male sex characteristics. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42926&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42926&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C862″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic form of the endogenous androgenic steroid testosterone. In vivo, testosterone is irreversibly converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in target tissues by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Testosterone or DHT ligand-androgen receptor complexes act as transcription factor complexes, stimulating the expression of various responsive genes. DHT binds with higher affinity to androgen receptors than testosterone, activating gene expression more efficiently. In addition, testosterone is irreversibly converted to estradiol by the enzyme complex aromatase, particularly in the liver and adipose tissue. Testosterone and DHT promote the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics related to the internal and external genitalia, skeletal muscle, and hair follicles; estradiol promotes epiphyseal maturation and bone mineralization. Due to rapid metabolism by the liver, therapeutic testosterone is generally administered as an ester derivative.
NCI

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polyvinyly

polymerization product of a monomeric vinyl compound.
CSP

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studium lékařství

Use for general articles concerning medical education.
MSH

formal graduate program leading to a medical degree; involves internship and residency programs leading to a profession in medicine and/or research.
CSP

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prsy – nemoci

Pathological processes of the BREAST.
MSH

disease or disorder of the breast.
CSP

Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps and discharges.

If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar symptoms. Although many women fear cancer, most breast problems are not cancer.

Some common causes of breast changes are

  • Fibrocystic breast condition – lumpiness, thickening and swelling, often associated with a woman`s period
  • Cysts – fluid-filled lumps
  • Fibroadenomas – solid, round, rubbery lumps that move easily when pushed, occurring most in younger women
  • Intraductal papillomas – growths similar to warts near the nipple
  • Blocked or clogged milk ducts
  • Milk production when a woman is not breastfeeding
  • Injury

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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GERNU INKONTINENTZIA(ESKL.PSIKOLOG.P12)

Inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or the escape of stool from the rectum (fecal incontinence).
NCI

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kyselina tetrathionová

A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
MSH

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ventilace umělá s výdechovým přetlakem

A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
MSH

method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
CSP

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vaječný žloutek

Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
MSH

cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo; it is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
CSP

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bromtrichlormethan

A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.
MSH

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indomethacin

A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
MSH

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids; also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
CSP

A drug that reduces pain, fever, swelling, and redness. It is also being used to reduce tumor-induced suppression of the immune system and to increase the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
NCI

a kind of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
CHV

A synthetic nonsteroidal indole derivative with anti-inflammatory activity and chemopreventive properties. As a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, thereby preventing cyclooxygenase-mediated DNA adduct formation by heterocyclic aromatic amines. This agent also may inhibit the expression of multidrug-resistant protein type 1, resulting in increased efficacies of some antineoplastic agents in treating multi-drug resistant tumors. In addition, indomethacin activates phosphatases that inhibit the migration and proliferation of cancer cells and downregulates survivin, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39489&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39489&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C576″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nonsteroidal indole derivative with anti-inflammatory activity and chemopreventive properties. As a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, thereby preventing cyclooxygenase-mediated DNA adduct formation by heterocyclic aromatic amines. This agent also may inhibit the expression of multidrug-resistant protein type 1, resulting in increased efficacies of some antineoplastic agents in treating multi-drug resistant tumors. In addition, indomethacin activates phosphatases that inhibit the migration and proliferation of cancer cells and downregulates survivin, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis. (NCI04)
NCI

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terapie

Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
MSH

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

a scientific field of healing
CHV

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drůbež – nemoci

Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
MSH

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elektrické orgány

In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
MSH

in species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disc-like multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix; muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, for example, the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers; powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second and serve to stun prey and ward off predators.
CSP

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Brucellaceae

family of gram negative coccoid to rod shaped bacteria in the order Rhizobiales; they are obligate parasites chiefly of warm blooded vertebrates; many are pathogenic.
CSP

A taxonomic family of rhizobial, symbiotic bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria that are found in plant roots and perform nitrogen fixation.
NCI

A family of gram-negative coccoid to rod-shaped bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. They are obligate parasites chiefly of warm-blooded VERTEBRATES. Many are pathogenic.
MSH

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herpesvirus 1 bovinní

A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
MSH

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thiethylperazin

A dopamine antagonist that is particularly useful in treating the nausea and vomiting associated with anesthesia, mildly emetic cancer chemotherapy agents, radiation therapy, and toxins. This piperazine phenothiazine does not prevent vertigo or motion sickness. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p457)
MSH

A piperazine phenothiazine derivative and a dopamine antagonist used as antiemetic. Thiethylperazine blocks postsynaptic dopamine 2 (D2) receptors in the medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), thereby decreasing stimulation of the vomiting center in the brain. Peripherally, thiethylperazine blocks the vagus nerve in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, this agent also shows antagonistic activities mediated through muscarinic receptors, H1-receptors, and alpha(1)-receptors.
NCI

A drug used to prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting. It belongs to the families of drugs called antiemetics and phenothiazines.
NCI

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