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flucytosin

A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
MSH

fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
CSP

A drug that treats infections caused by fungi.
NCI

A pyrimidine compound and a fluorinated cytosine analog exhibiting antifungal activity. After penetration into the fungal cells, flucytosine is deaminated to its active metabolite 5-fluorouracil. 5-fluorouracil replaces uracil during fungal RNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting fungal protein synthesis. In addition, fluorouracil is further metabolized to 5-fluorodeoxyuridylic acid monophosphate, which inhibits thymidylate synthetase, thereby interrupting nucleotide metabolism, DNA synthesis and ultimately protein synthesis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41023&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41023&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C501″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A pyrimidine compound and a fluorinated cytosine analog exhibiting antifungal activity. After penetration into the fungal cells, flucytosine is deaminated to its active metabolite 5-fluorouracil. 5-fluorouracil replaces uracil during fungal RNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting fungal protein synthesis. In addition, fluorouracil is further metabolized to 5-fluorodeoxyuridylic acid monophosphate, which inhibits thymidylate synthetase, thereby interrupting nucleotide metabolism, DNA synthesis and ultimately protein synthesis.
NCI

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methanol

A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
MSH

colorless, flammable liquid, CH3OH; an alcohol used in chemical synthesis, in antifreeze, and as a solvent; ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
CSP

Used as a solvent and as an intermediate in chemical synthesis. Component of deicing mixtures and preservatives. Toxic.
NCI

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circulus arteriosus Willisi

A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
MSH

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radiační účinky

The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
MSH

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leukotrien B4

The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
MSH

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fluorometholon

A glucocorticoid employed, usually as eye drops, in the treatment of allergic and inflammatory conditions of the eye. It has also been used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
MSH

A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Fluorometholone exerts its effects by interacting with cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. The synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins is induced while the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators is inhibited. As a result, there is an overall reduction in chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions.
NCI

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algináty

Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
MSH

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ovum – stadium rýhování

The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
MSH

the first stage of embryogenesis; cleavage of fertilized ovum, leading to formation of the embryo.
CSP

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rentgendiagnostika zubní

radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
CSP

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licence farmaceutická

The granting of a license to practice pharmacy.
MSH

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folikulitida

Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.
MSH

Inflammation of a follicle (a sac or pouch-like cavity), usually a hair follicle.
NCI

Inflammation of the hair follicles. Causes include excessive perspiration, skin infections, and skin wounds.
NCI

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aloxan

pyrimidine ring with carbonyl oxygens at all 4 carbon atoms; an oxidation product of uric acid which, by destroying beta cells in the pancreas, can cause diabetes mellitus; an experimental antineoplastic.
CSP

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klony buněčné

A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes; clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence.
CSP

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rafoxanid

Veterinary anthelmintic for grazing animals; used to treat fluke, hookworm and other infestations.
MSH

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lineární modely

Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
MSH

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noha – deformity vrozené

Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.
MSH

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alfa-MSH

A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
MSH

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koagulasa

Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
MSH

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potkani inbrední WKY

A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
MSH

An outbred Wistar substrain derived at Kyoto school of medicine and disseminated to the NIH in 1971 and finally to Charles River in 1974. The Wistar Kyoto is a white albino with pink eyes, genotype c. This rat strain is used in cardiac and behavioral research and as a control for studies involving the spontaneous hypertensive rat.
NCI

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Urbachův-Wietheho syndrom

An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.
MSH

A rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by hoarseness of voice, eyelid beading, skin lesions, and seizures.
NCI

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formiáty

caustic acid or its derivatives containing the HCOO- radical.
CSP

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amaranth – barvivo

A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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Codeine Phosphate

The phosphate salt of codeine, a naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloid and opioid agonist with analgesic, antidiarrheal and antitussive activities. Codeine mimics the actions of endogenous opioids by binding to the opioid receptors at many sites within the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulation of mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a decrease in the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the codeine metabolite morphine induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Stimulation of gut mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a reduction in intestinal motility and delayed intestinal transit times. Antitussive activity is mediated through codeine`s action on the cough center in the medulla.
NCI

A drug used to treat pain, cough, and diarrhea. It is made from opium or morphine and binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Codeine phosphate is a type of opiate, a type of analgesic agent, a type of antitussive agent, and a type of antidiarrheal agent.
NCI

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receptory antigenů T-buněk

Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
MSH

immunoglobulin like receptor associated with CD3 marker on T lymphocytes which binds specific antigen and thereby participates in T cell activation; recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta or gamma-delta chains.
CSP

Heterodimeric antigen receptors present on the surface of T-cells. Two T-cell antigen receptors have been identified, consisting of heterodimeric 40-55 kD Ig-like alpha/beta or gamma/delta integral membrane glycoproteins. Genes for TCR alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits are assembled during T-cell development by somatic rearrangement of germline gene segments, resembling B-cell Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and activation of expression. Alpha/beta heterodimers are found on helper and cytotoxic T-cells and are specific for antigenic peptides presented by MHC gene products. T-cells expressing gamma/delta heterodimers directly recognize proteins and non-proteinacious phospho-ligands. T-cell receptors are non-covalently associated with CD3, forming the TCR-CD3 complex. TCRs activate MAPKs and JNK1 through the CD3 antigens, the adaptor protein LAT, and tyrosine kinases LCK and ZAP70. (from OMIM and NCI)
NCI

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lithium

An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
MSH

white metal, symbol Li, atomic number 3; lithium salts are used in treating the manic phase of bipolar disorder.
CSP

A monovalent cation that is metabolized much like sodium and is important in many cellular functions inside or on the surface of cells.
NCI

An element with atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight 6.941.
NCI

A soft metal. Lithium salts are used to treat certain mental disorders, especially bipolar (manic depressive) disorder. Lithium salts include lithium carbonate and lithium citrate.
NCI

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fraktury nespojené

A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

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mitomycin

An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
MSH

antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus that acts as an alkylating agent causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
CSP

A methylazirinopyrroloindoledione antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells, mitomycin C also inhibits RNA and protein synthesis at high concentrations. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42674&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42674&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1820″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A methylazirinopyrroloindoledione antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells, mitomycin C also inhibits RNA and protein synthesis at high concentrations. (NCI04)
NCI

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bakteriociny – plazmidy

Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
MSH

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receptory mitogenů

Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
MSH

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Nephropidae

Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
MSH

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