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osteitis deformans

A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
MSH

disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass.
CSP

A disease of bone that initially results in the excessive resorption of bone (by osteoclasts) followed by the replacement of normal bone marrow with vascular and fibrous tissue. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

Paget`s disease of bone causes your bones to grow larger and weaker than normal. They also might break easily. The disease can lead to other health problems, too, such as arthritis and hearing loss. You can have Paget`s disease in any bone, but it is most common in the spine, pelvis, skull and legs. The disease might affect one or several bones, but not your entire skeleton. More men than women have the disease. It is most common in older people.

Many people do not know they have Paget`s disease because their symptoms are mild. For others, symptoms can include

  • Pain
  • Enlarged bones
  • Broken bones
  • Damaged cartilage in joints

No one knows what causes Paget`s disease. In some cases, a virus might be responsible. It tends to run in families. You can treat Paget`s disease with medicine and sometimes surgery. A good diet and exercise might also help.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass.
CHV

A chronic condition in which both the breakdown and regrowth of bone are increased. Paget disease of bone occurs most frequently in the pelvic and leg bones, skull, and lower spine. It is most common in older individuals, and may lead to bone pain, deformities, and fractures.
NCI

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zvířata – identifikační systémy

Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
MSH

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ledviny – glomerulus

A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
MSH

globular tufts of capillaries, one projecting into the expanded end or capsule of each the uriniferous tubules.
CSP

A tiny, round cluster of blood vessels within the kidneys. It filters the blood to reabsorb useful materials and remove waste as urine.
NCI

A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue. (MeSH)
NCI

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brýle

A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
MSH

Frames with lenses worn in front of the eye for vision correction, eye protection, or protection from UV rays.
NCI

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semeno – uchovávání

The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
MSH

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kritické období (psychologie)

A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
MSH

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osteoradionekróza

Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
MSH

Necrosis of bone following exposure to a source of radiation.
NCI

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Anoplura

An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.
MSH

A taxonomic order of wingless insects that are obligate ectoparasites of birds and mammals. Lice attach tightly to hair, fur, and feathers of the host organism and feed on blood, skin, and sebaceous secretions.
NCI

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Klebsiella

genus of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains; this genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
MSH

A bacteria that frequently causes lung, urinary tract, intestinal, and wound infections.
NCI

a kind of bacteria that frequently causes lung, urinary tract, intestinal, and wound infections
CHV

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Klebsiella genus level.
NCI

A genus of Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that have a polysaccharide-based capsule and are oxidase negative. Klebsiella spp. are frequent human pathogens.
NCI

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faktor X

Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
MSH

Coagulation factor X (488 aa, 55 kDa) is encoded by the human F10 gene. This protein is involved in proteolysis and blood coagulation.
NCI

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L-serindehydratasa

A PYRIDOXAL-phosphate containing enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration and deamination of L-serine to form pyruvate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.13.
MSH

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kryptokokóza

infection with a fungus of the species Cryptococcus neoformans.
CSP

An acute or chronic, localized or disseminated infection by Cryptococcus neoformans. Sites of involvement include the lungs, central nervous system and meninges, skin, and visceral organs.–2004
NCI

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přeučení

Learning in which practice proceeds beyond the point where the act can just be performed with the required degree of excellence.
MSH

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antropologie kulturní

It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
MSH

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kyselina kynurenová

A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
MSH

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rodinná terapie

A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
MSH

form of group psychotherapy involving the treatment of more than one member of a family simultaneously in the same session.
CSP

A type of therapy in which the whole family talks with a professional counselor to solve family problems.
NCI

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setariáza

Infection with nematodes of the genus Setaria. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness.
MSH

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kyanamid

A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
MSH

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oximy

Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
MSH

compounds containing the group C=NOH.
CSP

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protilátky – afinita

A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of “avidity,” which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
MSH

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Traanklieren

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate the lacrimal sac. Examples: There only two instances, right lacrimal and left lacrimal glands.
FMA

A gland that secretes tears. The lacrimal glands are found in the upper, outer part of each eye socket.
NCI

Paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands situated superior and posterior to each orbit of the eye that produce and secrete the watery serous component of tears.
NCI

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kyseliny mastné esenciální

Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
MSH

long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet.
CSP

Used to indicate a fatty acid that is not efficiently synthesized by humans and must be included in the diet.
NCI

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sexuálně přenosné nemoci bakteriální

Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
MSH

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cyklofosfamid

Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
MSH

precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent; used in the treatment of lymphomas, leukemias and other cancers, and as an immunosupressive agent to prevent transplant rejection; its side effect, alopecia, has been used for defleecing sheep; may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat many types of cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is also used to treat some types of kidney disease in children. Cyclophosphamide attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent.
NCI

A synthetic alkylating agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. In the liver, cyclophosphamide is converted to the active metabolites aldophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, which bind to DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and initiating cell death. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39748&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39748&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C405″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic alkylating agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. In the liver, cyclophosphamide is converted to the active metabolites aldophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, which bind to DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and initiating cell death.
NCI

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ozón

An unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3, that exists in the atmosphere in varying proportions. It is produced continuously in the outer layers of the atmosphere by the action of solar UV-radiation on the oxygen of the air.
MSH

triatomic form of oxygen, O3; a pungent, unstable blue gas that in the upper atmosphere forms a protective layer against excess ultraviolet radiation and is an ingredient of photochemical smog in the lower atmosphere; used in the purification of drinking water and as an oxidizing agent.
CSP

Ozone is a gas. It can be good or bad, depending on where it is. “Good” ozone occurs naturally about 10 to 30 miles above the Earth`s surface. It shields us from the sun`s ultraviolet rays. Part of the good ozone layer is gone – destroyed by man-made chemicals. Without enough good ozone, people may get too much ultraviolet radiation. This may increase the risk of skin cancer, cataracts and immune system problems.

“Bad” ozone is at ground level. It forms when pollutants from cars, factories and other sources react chemically with sunlight. It is the main ingredient in smog. It is usually worst in the summer. Breathing bad ozone can be harmful, causing coughing, throat irritation, worsening of asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and even permanent lung damage, if you are regularly exposed to it.

Environmental Protection Agency


MEDLINEPLUS

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antigeny diferenciační

Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
MSH

antigens normally only seen at particular phases of differentiation of a cell type.
CSP

Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation. (MeSH)
NCI

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Langerův-Giedionův syndrom

Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cone-shaped epiphyses in the hands and multiple cartilaginous exostoses. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and abnormalities of chromosome 8 are often present. The exostoses in this syndrome appear identical to those of hereditary multiple exostoses (EXOSTOSES, HEREDITARY MULTIPLE).
MSH

A rare, usually sporadic and less frequently familiar syndrome caused by deletions on the long arm of chromosome 8. It is characterized by distinctive facial appearance (sparse hair, pear-shaped nose, and large ears), multiple exostoses, redundant skin, and mental retardation.
NCI

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ženské pohlaví

use in conjunction with a disease, disorder, dysfunction, body system, or function which is gender specific.
CSP

A person who belongs to the sex that normally produces ova. The term is used to indicate biological sex distinctions, or cultural gender role distinctions, or both. (NCI)
NCI

An individual who reports belonging to the cultural gender role distinction of female.
NCI

A person who belongs to the sex that normally produces ova. The term is used to indicate biological sex distinctions, or cultural gender role distinctions, or both.
NCI

Female


HL7V3.0

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rameno – luxace

Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.
MSH

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kaspasy

A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
MSH

The caspases are a family of proteases responsible for carrying out the cell death process. In a living cell, these proteases are kept inactive by proteins on the mitochondrial cell surface from the BcL-2 family. When a cell is exposed to cell death signals such as ischemia, chemotherapy or radiation, BcL-2 function is blocked and caspase activators initiate the cell death cascade.
NCI

Caspases are a family of intracellular cysteine proteinases involved in inflammation and apoptosis. These enzymes appear to be involved in the initial signaling events, as well as the downstream proteolytic cleavages, that result in apoptotic cell death. They are specific for aspartic acid at the P1 position and are divided into two classes based on the lengths of their N-terminal pro-domains. Caspases-1, -2, -4, -5, -8, and -10 have long pro-domains; caspases-3, -6, -7, and -9 have short pro-domains. (from Science 1998. 281:1312 and Br Med Bull 1997. 53:478)
NCI

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