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nádor z Leydigových buněk

Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
MSH

A sex cord-stromal tumor occurring in the testis and rarely in the ovary. It is predominantly or completely composed of Leydig cells which may contain crystals of Reinke. In males it usually presents as a painless testicular enlargement and it may be associated with gynecomastia and decreased libido. The majority of the cases have a benign clinical course. Approximately 10% of the cases have a malignant clinical course and metastasize. In females it may be associated with androgenic manifestations and it follows a benign clinical course.
NCI

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tarzální kosti

The seven bones which form the tarsus – namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
MSH

Any one of the seven bones forming the instep of the foot. (NCI)
NCI

The seven bones which form the tarsus; namely the calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and first, second and third cuneiforms. The tarsus is a skeletal part of the foot.
NCI

Any one of the seven bones forming the instep of the foot.
NCI

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flurandrenolon

A corticosteroid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream or an ointment, and is also used as a polyethylene tape with an adhesive. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p733)
MSH

A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Flurandrenolide exerts its effects by interacting with specific cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. The synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins is induced while the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators is inhibited. As a result, there is an overall reduction in chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions.
NCI

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Poisoning aspects

Used with drugs, chemicals, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure.
MSH

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choristom

A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
MSH

Proliferation of normal tissue in an anatomic site in which this particular type of tissue is not normally present.
NCI

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pravděpodobná délka života

Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
MSH

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technologie v biomedicíně – hodnocení

Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.
MSH

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potraviny – manipulace

Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
MSH

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polybrombifenylové sloučeniny

Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
MSH

A mixture of synthetic solids, containing three or more bromine atoms, that is virtually insoluble in water but is soluble in fat and various organic solvents. There are 209 different molecular combinations, or congeners, that are possible for polybrominated biphenyls. These mixtures are no longer used or produced in commercial quantities in the United States. Residues remaining in and around plants that formerly manufactured, processed or produced products using polybrominated biphenyls are the current sources for human exposure. The primary routes of potential human exposure to polybrominated biphenyls are ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. A commercial mixture of these compounds is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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chrom

A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
MSH

heavy metal and dietary trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism; atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52.
CSP

a chemical element
CHV

An element with atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52.
NCI

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len

A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
MSH

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temporomandibulární kloub

An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
MSH

temporomandibular articulation: a bicondylar joint formed by the head of the mandible and the mandibular fossa, and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
CSP

The joint between the head of the lower mandible and the temporal bone. (NCI)
NCI

The joint between the head of the lower mandible and the temporal bone.
NCI

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usilovný výdech – objem

Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
MSH

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polymerázová řetězová reakce

In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
MSH

method for reproducing specific DNA sequences based on elongation of complementary primers by DNA polymerase; primarily used to increase quantities for analytical detection of, e.g., virus genome.
CSP

A laboratory method used to make many copies of a specific DNA sequence.
NCI

laboratory procedure for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments
CHV

Description:Polymerase Chain Reaction


HL7V3.0

A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence using multiple rounds of heat denaturation of the DNA and annealing of oligonucleotide primers complementary to flanking regions in the presence of a heat-stable polymerase. This results in duplication of the targeted DNA region. Newly synthesized DNA strands can subsequently serve as additional templates for the same primer sequences, so that successive rounds of primer annealing, strand elongation, and dissociation produce rapid and highly specific amplification of the desired sequence. PCR also can be used to detect the existence of the defined sequence in a DNA sample.
NCI

Molecular, Polymerase chain reaction


HL7V3.0

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chromozómy lidské, pár 13

A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the thirteenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 13 spans about 113 million base pairs and represents between 3.5 and 4% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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lipoprotein-X

An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
MSH

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testis – nemoci

Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
MSH

deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the testis.
CSP

Testicles, or testes, make male hormones and sperm. They are two egg-shaped organs inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin behind the penis. It`s easy to injure your testicles because they are not protected by bones or muscles. Men and boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports.

You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It usually happens between the ages of 15 and 40.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by involvement of the testis.
NCI

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder affecting the testis. Representative examples include torsion, infarction, germ cell tumor, sex cord-stromal tumor, lymphoma, and leukemia.
NCI

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Forssmanův antigen

A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
MSH

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polytetrafluoroethylen

Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
MSH

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chymotrypsin

A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
MSH

serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, chymotrypsinogen, and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by trypsin.
CSP

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jaterní cirhóza

liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
NCI

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to

  • Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
  • Swelling of the abdomen or legs
  • Extra sensitivity to medicines
  • High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach
  • Kidney failure

About 5 percent of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.

Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by replacement of the liver parenchyma with fibrous tissue and regenerative nodules. It is usually caused by alcoholisms, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Complications include the development of ascites, esophageal varices, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy.
NCI

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tetrahydrouridin

An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.
MSH

A substance that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called cytidine deaminase inhibitors, multidrug resistance modulators, and radiosensitizers.
NCI

A synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue with biomodulating activity. Tetrahydrouridine increases the efficacy of the radiosensitizer cytochlor (5-chloro-2`-deoxycytidine) by inhibiting the enzyme deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) deaminase and preventing the premature deamination of the cytochlor metabolite 5-chloro-2`-deoxycytidine monophosphate (CldCMP) to 5-chloro-2`-deoxyuridine monophosphate (CldUMP); in turn, this increases tumor concentrations of CldUMP which is then further anabolized and incorporated selectively into tumor DNA as CldU (5-chloro-2`-deoxyuridine). Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39710&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39710&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C868″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue with biomodulating activity. Tetrahydrouridine increases the efficacy of the radiosensitizer cytochlor (5-chloro-2`-deoxycytidine) by inhibiting the enzyme deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) deaminase and preventing the premature deamination of the cytochlor metabolite 5-chloro-2`-deoxycytidine monophosphate (CldCMP) to 5-chloro-2`-deoxyuridine monophosphate (CldUMP); in turn, this increases tumor concentrations of CldUMP which is then further anabolized and incorporated selectively into tumor DNA as CldU (5-chloro-2`-deoxyuridine). (NCI04)
NCI

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volné radikály

Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
MSH

chemicals whose molecular or ionic structure includes an unpaired (“free”) electron, usually conferring high reactivity; in biological systems, most free radicals contain oxygen (prefer FREE RADICAL OXYGEN).
CSP

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism (chemical changes that take place in a cell). Free radicals can build up in cells and cause damage to other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. This damage may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
NCI

Molecules or atoms with at least one unpaired or `free` electron in the outermost electron shell. Chemically unstable, free radicals stabilize themselves by appropriating an electron from a nearby molecule, thereby damaging that molecule by altering the electron number in its outermost electron shell. By-products of both normal cell processes and environmental toxin exposure, oxygen free-radicals in high concentrations may damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, thereby increasing the risk for various diseases including cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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sviňuchy

Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker`s Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)
MSH

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citrát-(si)-synthasa

the first enzyme of the Krebs` cycle transfers the 2-carbon unit from acetyl coA to oxaloacetate, forming citrate.
CSP

Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
MSH

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loaiáza

A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
MSH

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tematická apercepce – test

A projective technique which focuses primarily on the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. It consists of a series of 31 pictures that depict various social situations and interpersonal relations. A subset is selected by the examiner and presented to the subject who is asked to tell a story about each picture. The stories are interpreted in terms of the subject`s relations to authority figures, to contemporaries of both sexes, and in terms of the compromises between external demands and the needs of the id, the ego, and the superego. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
MSH

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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dvojchroman draselný

Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
MSH

An orange to red colored, crystalline, inorganic compound that emits toxic chromium fumes upon heating. Potassium dichromate is highly corrosive and is a strong oxidizing agent. This substance is used in wood preservatives, in the manufacture of pigments and in photomechanical processes, but is mainly replaced by sodium dichromate. Potassium dichromate primarily affects the respiratory tract causing ulcerations, shortness of breath, bronchitis, pneumonia and asthma but can also affect the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys and immune system. This substance is a known human carcinogen and is associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer and cancer of the sinonasal cavity. (NCI05)
NCI

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klindamycin

An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
MSH

an antibacterial drug
CHV

A semisynthetic broad spectrum antibiotic produced by chemical modification of the parent compound lincomycin. Clindamycin dissociates peptidyl-tRNA from the bacterial ribosome, thereby disrupting bacterial protein synthesis. (NCI04)
NCI

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