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nádor z Leydigových buněk

Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
MSH

A sex cord-stromal tumor occurring in the testis and rarely in the ovary. It is predominantly or completely composed of Leydig cells which may contain crystals of Reinke. In males it usually presents as a painless testicular enlargement and it may be associated with gynecomastia and decreased libido. The majority of the cases have a benign clinical course. Approximately 10% of the cases have a malignant clinical course and metastasize. In females it may be associated with androgenic manifestations and it follows a benign clinical course.
NCI

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alkeny

Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
MSH

unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene.
CSP

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flurandrenolon

A corticosteroid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream or an ointment, and is also used as a polyethylene tape with an adhesive. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p733)
MSH

A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Flurandrenolide exerts its effects by interacting with specific cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. The synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins is induced while the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators is inhibited. As a result, there is an overall reduction in chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions.
NCI

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choristom

A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
MSH

Proliferation of normal tissue in an anatomic site in which this particular type of tissue is not normally present.
NCI

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radioisotopy

Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

isotopes that decay and emit radiation; either naturally occurring elements or are produced by the action of neutrons, protons, deuterons, or alpha particles; index with a specific element when appropriate, e.g., C14 index with CARBON and RADIONUCLIDE.
CSP

a chemical element that has been made radioactive
CHV

An unstable form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable. Radioisotopes may occur in nature or be made in a laboratory. In medicine, they are used in imaging tests and in treatment.
NCI

A version of a chemical element that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation during its decay to a stable form. (online dictionary)
NCI

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pravděpodobná délka života

Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
MSH

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alopecia areata

Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
MSH

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potraviny – manipulace

Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
MSH

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chrom

A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
MSH

heavy metal and dietary trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism; atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52.
CSP

a chemical element
CHV

An element with atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52.
NCI

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Rana temporaria

A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
MSH

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len

A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
MSH

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Alternaria

A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
MSH

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usilovný výdech – objem

Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
MSH

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chromozómy lidské, pár 13

A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
MSH

The designation for each member of the thirteenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. Chromosome 13 spans about 113 million base pairs and represents between 3.5 and 4% of the total DNA in normal diploid cells.
NCI

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Raynaudova nemoc

intermittent attacks of ischemia in the fingers, toes, ears, or nose, accompanied by pain, pallor, and prickling; phenomenon applies to secondary symptoms, disease when cause is unknown.
CSP

Raynaud`s disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. People with this disorder have attacks that cause the blood vessels to narrow. When this happens, blood can`t get to the surface of the skin and the affected areas turn white and blue. When the blood flow returns, the skin turns red and throbs or tingles. In severe cases, loss of blood flow can cause sores or tissue death. Cold weather and stress can trigger attacks. Often the cause of Raynaud`s is not known. People in colder climates are more likely to develop Raynaud`s than people in warmer areas.

Treatment for Raynaud`s may include drugs to keep the blood vessels open. There are also simple things you can do yourself, such as

  • Soaking hands in warm water at the first sign of an attack
  • Keeping your hands and feet warm in cold weather

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

blood vessel disease that causes exaggerated responses to cold and stress with poor blood circulation
CHV

An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
MSH

An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by ischemic attacks in the fingers, toes, ears, or nose, associated with pain and pallor. The attacks occur during exposure to cold temperatures or stress.
NCI

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lipoprotein-X

An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
MSH

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Ambystoma

A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
MSH

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Forssmanův antigen

A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
MSH

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chymotrypsin

A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
MSH

serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, chymotrypsinogen, and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by trypsin.
CSP

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receptory buněčného povrchu

Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
MSH

cell surface proteins that bind signaling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell; not all cell surface receptors are tree`d under this term.
CSP

A receptor protein that is localized to the plasma membrane and may have exposure to the extracellular milieu.
NCI

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jaterní cirhóza

liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
CSP

A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
NCI

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to

  • Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
  • Swelling of the abdomen or legs
  • Extra sensitivity to medicines
  • High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
  • Enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach
  • Kidney failure

About 5 percent of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.

Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by replacement of the liver parenchyma with fibrous tissue and regenerative nodules. It is usually caused by alcoholisms, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Complications include the development of ascites, esophageal varices, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy.
NCI

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aminace

The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
MSH

creation of an amine by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
CSP

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volné radikály

Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
MSH

chemicals whose molecular or ionic structure includes an unpaired (“free”) electron, usually conferring high reactivity; in biological systems, most free radicals contain oxygen (prefer FREE RADICAL OXYGEN).
CSP

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism (chemical changes that take place in a cell). Free radicals can build up in cells and cause damage to other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. This damage may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
NCI

Molecules or atoms with at least one unpaired or `free` electron in the outermost electron shell. Chemically unstable, free radicals stabilize themselves by appropriating an electron from a nearby molecule, thereby damaging that molecule by altering the electron number in its outermost electron shell. By-products of both normal cell processes and environmental toxin exposure, oxygen free-radicals in high concentrations may damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, thereby increasing the risk for various diseases including cancer. (NCI04)
NCI

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citrát-(si)-synthasa

the first enzyme of the Krebs` cycle transfers the 2-carbon unit from acetyl coA to oxaloacetate, forming citrate.
CSP

Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
MSH

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receptory serotoninové

Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
MSH

diverse family of receptors that mediate the effects of serotonin on neurons, lymphocytes, and other cells; in neurons, serotonin can be either excitatory or inhibitory; some serotonin receptors are G protein coupled.
CSP

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loaiáza

A parasitic infection caused by the nematode Loa loa. The vector in the transmission of this infection is the horsefly (Tabanus) or the deerfly or mango fly (Chrysops). The larvae may be seen just beneath the skin or passing through the conjunctiva. Eye lesions are not uncommon. The disease is generally mild and painless.
MSH

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kyselina aminolevulová

A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
MSH

The active ingredient in a drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When aminolevulinic acid is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent.
NCI

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C234″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A topically administered metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin IX. After topical administration, aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which is a photosensitizer. When the proper wavelength of light activates protoporphyrin IX, singlet oxygen is produced, resulting in a local cytotoxic effect. (NCI04)
NCI

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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klindamycin

An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
MSH

an antibacterial drug
CHV

A semisynthetic broad spectrum antibiotic produced by chemical modification of the parent compound lincomycin. Clindamycin dissociates peptidyl-tRNA from the bacterial ribosome, thereby disrupting bacterial protein synthesis. (NCI04)
NCI

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nucleus ruber

A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
MSH

pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum receiving a large projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex.
CSP

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