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chiasma opticum

The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
MSH

hypothalamic structure formed by the crossing of optic nerve fibers from the medial half of each retina.
CSP

An anatomy term for an X-shaped crossing (for example, of nerves or tendons).
NCI

Nerve trunk which is continuous with right and left optic nerves and right and left optic tracts.
FMA

An anatomic structure formed by the crossing of the two optic nerves under the hypothalamus.
NCI

The place in the brain where some of the optic nerve fibers coming from one eye cross optic nerve fibers from the other eye.
NCI

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intracelulární membrány

Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
MSH

membranes of subcellular structures.
CSP

A thin pliable sheet separating organelles from the protoplasm.
NCI

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Schizophyllum

A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.
MSH

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koronární artérie – bypass

Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
MSH

surgical procedure creating a bridge between the ascending aorta and one or more of the three major coronary arteries, distal to an obstructive lesion, using autologous tissue transplanted from the saphenous vein.
CSP

Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart. This restores the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the heart.
NCI

Surgery performed to bypass partially or completely occluded coronary arteries, thereby increasing the blood supply of the heart.
NCI

If you have coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. If lifestyle changes and medicines don`t help, your doctor may recommend coronary artery bypass surgery.

The surgery uses a piece of a vein from the leg or artery from the chest or wrist. The surgeon attaches this to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed area or blockage. This allows blood to bypass the blockage. Some people need more than one bypass.

You may need bypass surgery for various reasons. Another procedure for CAD, angioplasty, may not have widened the artery enough. In some cases, the angioplasty tube can`t reach the blockage.

A bypass also can close again. This happens in more than 10 percent of bypass surgeries, usually after 10 or more years.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

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erythema chronicum migrans

A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
MSH

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orgánová specificita

Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
MSH

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ANEMIA HEMOLITIKOA

Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
MSH

includes hereditary erythrocyte membrane defects, enzyme deficiencies, hemoglobin abnormalities, stem cell defects (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), and alloimmune (Rh) disease of newborn.
CSP

A congenital hemolytic anemia caused by defects of the erythrocyte membrane, enzyme deficiencies, or hemoglobinopathies.
NCI

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jod

A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
MSH

nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90; it is a nutritionally essential element and is especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis; in solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
CSP

An element that is necessary for the body to make thyroid hormone. It is found in shellfish and iodized salt.
NCI

An element with atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90.
NCI

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sklerodermie lokalizovaná

A chronic disorder, possibly autoimmune, marked by excessive production of collagen which results in hardening and thickening of body tissues. Localized scleroderma typically affects the skin, with formation of patches or lines of thick and unyielding tissue; there can be muscle and underlying tissue involvement as well as occasional joint complications. The affected areas of skin can be restrictive and disfiguring. The shape, depth and location of the affected area is used to classify one of the four types of local scleroderma. An individual can have a combination of localized scleroderma types.
NCI

A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.
MSH

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kosmetické techniky

Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
MSH

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Escherichia

genus of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria found in the large intestine of warm blooded animals; nonpathogenic or opportunistic.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
MSH

A genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Escherichia genus level.
NCI

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ornithinkarbamoyltransferasa

A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
MSH

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrial (354 aa, ~40 kDa) is encoded by the human OTC gene. This protein plays a role in the metabolism of ornithine.
NCI

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anetholtrithion

Choleretic used to allay dry mouth and constipation due to tranquilizers.
MSH

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.
NCI

A substituted dithiolthione and analog of chemopreventive agent oltipraz. Anethole trithione is a bile secretion-stimulating drug that restores salivation and relieves the discomfort of dry mouth in chemotherapy-induced xerostomia. In addition, this agent has exhibited chemopreventive properties. The mechanism of action for the chemopreventive and xerostomia properties have not been fully elucidated.
NCI

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ipodát

Ionic monomeric contrast media. Usually the sodium or calcium salts are used for examination of the gall bladder and biliary tract. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p704)
MSH

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mazové žlázy – nádory

new abnormal sebaceous gland tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

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viry coxsackie – infekce

A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
MSH

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estetika

The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.
MSH

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oscilometrie

The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
MSH

study of the records of oscillations in electric current waveform.
CSP

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Aniline

compounds containing a benzene ring and an amine group.
CSP

Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic histopathology, cytopathology, or hematology.
SPN

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nádor z ostrůvkových buněk

A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
MSH

A benign endocrine neoplasm arising from the pancreas. It is separated from the normal pancreatic tissues by a thin collagenous capsule. It may secrete a hormone (e.g. insulin, gastrin) or it may be non-functional.
NCI

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autostimulace

Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
MSH

stimulation which is self-administered; the stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
CSP

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prstencová chrupavka

The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
MSH

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ethanolaminfosfotransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
MSH

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osteomalacie

A condition marked by softening of the bones (due to impaired mineralization, with excess accumulation of osteoid), with pain, tenderness, muscular weakness, anorexia, and loss of weight, resulting from deficiency of vitamin D and calcium. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature cortical and spongy bone.
CSP

A condition in adults in which bones become soft and deformed because they don`t have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is usually caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet, not getting enough sunlight, or a problem with the way the body uses vitamin D. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. When the condition occurs in children, it is called rickets.
NCI

A metabolic bone disease that results from either a deficiency in vitamin D, or an abnormality in the metabolism of vitamin D, or a deficiency of calcium in the diet. The most common symptoms are bone pain and muscle weakness. When it occurs in children it is commonly referred to as rickets. (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, 3rd ed.) –2003
NCI

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kotník

The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
MSH

joint formed by the articulation of the lower leg bones with the talus; ankle connects the foot with the leg.
CSP

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isosorbiddinitrát

A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
MSH

The dinitrate salt form of isosorbide, an organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Isosorbide dinitrate relaxes vascular smooth muscle by formation of the free radical nitric oxide (NO), which is identical to the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). NO activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing the synthesis of cGMP within smooth muscle, resulting in dephosphorylation of light chain myosin and relaxation of peripheral arteries and veins. In addition, isosorbide dinitrate relaxes coronary arteries, thereby increasing the blood circulation through the ischemic area. (NCI05)
NCI

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septum pellucidum – jádra

Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of forebrain and brainstem areas including the hippocampus, the lateral hypothalamus, the tegmentum, and the amygdala. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
MSH

Subdivision of the septum which contains the dorsal septal nucleus, the lateral septal nucleus, medial septal nucleus, triangular septal nucleus, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure and nucleus of stria terminalis.
FMA

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berle

Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)
MSH

A crutch is a device intended for medical purposes for use by disabled persons to provide minimal to moderate weight support while walking.
SPN

A wooden or metal staff that fits under the armpit and reaches to the ground, used as an aid while walking.
NCI

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etologie

The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
MSH

discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
CSP

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ambulantní kliniky nemocniční

Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
MSH

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