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receptory antigenů T-buněk

Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
MSH

immunoglobulin like receptor associated with CD3 marker on T lymphocytes which binds specific antigen and thereby participates in T cell activation; recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta or gamma-delta chains.
CSP

Heterodimeric antigen receptors present on the surface of T-cells. Two T-cell antigen receptors have been identified, consisting of heterodimeric 40-55 kD Ig-like alpha/beta or gamma/delta integral membrane glycoproteins. Genes for TCR alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits are assembled during T-cell development by somatic rearrangement of germline gene segments, resembling B-cell Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and activation of expression. Alpha/beta heterodimers are found on helper and cytotoxic T-cells and are specific for antigenic peptides presented by MHC gene products. T-cells expressing gamma/delta heterodimers directly recognize proteins and non-proteinacious phospho-ligands. T-cell receptors are non-covalently associated with CD3, forming the TCR-CD3 complex. TCRs activate MAPKs and JNK1 through the CD3 antigens, the adaptor protein LAT, and tyrosine kinases LCK and ZAP70. (from OMIM and NCI)
NCI

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miotika

Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
MSH

agent that causes the pupil of the eye to contract.
CSP

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cystamin

A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.
MSH

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mitomycin

An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
MSH

antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus that acts as an alkylating agent causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
CSP

A methylazirinopyrroloindoledione antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells, mitomycin C also inhibits RNA and protein synthesis at high concentrations. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42674&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42674&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1820″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A methylazirinopyrroloindoledione antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells, mitomycin C also inhibits RNA and protein synthesis at high concentrations. (NCI04)
NCI

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červi

Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
MSH

a type of parasite
CHV

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antimalarika

Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
MSH

agent used in the treatment or prevention of malaria.
CSP

Agents used to treat malaria, and are usually classified based on action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human.
NCI

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receptory mitogenů

Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
MSH

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pojivová tkáň – nemoci smíšené

A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud`s phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a “speckled” epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
MSH

An autoimmune overlap syndrome characterized by the presence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, and polymyositis.
NCI

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cytidindeaminasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
MSH

Cytidine deaminase (146 aa, ~16 kDa) is encoded by the human CDA gene. This protein is involved in the deamination of cytidine and deoxycytidine to uridine and deoxyuridine, respectively. (Entrez Gene)
NCI

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aminobifenylové sloučeniny

Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
MSH

nitrogen substituted aromatic amine formerly used in dyemaking; now used to induce cancer in laboratory animals.
CSP

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hematopoéza

The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
MSH

formation and development of blood cells.
CSP

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the myeloid and lymphoid derived organ/tissue systems of the blood and other parts of the body over time, from formation to the mature structure. The site of hemopoiesis is variable during development, but occurs primarily in bone marrow or kidney in many adult vertebrates. [GOC:dgh, ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

A process of blood formation and more specifically formation of blood cells that are all derived from hematopoietic stem cells.
NCI

The formation of new blood cells.
NCI

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treponematocidní látky

Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.
MSH

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rektum – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
MSH

new abnormal rectal or anal tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

Either benign or malignant growth of tissue in rectum, the terminal portion of the digestive tube.
NCI

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Tenericutes

A taxonomic phylum within kingdom Bacteria consisting of the Mollicutes, a class of intracellular parasitic bacteria without a cell wall.
NCI

A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.
MSH

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biologie buňky

for thorough searching also see CYTOLOGY.
CSP

The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
MSH

The study of cells using a microscope.
NCI

The light microscopic study of normal and abnormal cells in fine needle aspirates (FNAs), body cavity fluids, and smears.
NCI

The study of the internal workings of cells at the microscopic and molecular level. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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síran amonný

Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
MSH

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hemoglobin A

Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
MSH

normal adult hemoglobin, composed of 2 alpha and 2 beta chains.
CSP

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aortální chlopeň – stenóza

A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
MSH

constriction in the opening of the aortic valve or of the supravalvular or subvalvular regions.
CSP

Narrowing of the orifice of the aortic valve or of the supravalvular or subvalvular regions.
NCI

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refrakterní doba psychologická

A delayed response interval occurring when two stimuli are presented in close succession.
MSH

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monomethylhydrazin

Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
MSH

hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups.
CSP

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tanec

Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.
MSH

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amrinon

A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.
MSH

A synthetic bipyridine phosphodiesterase inhibitor with inotropic and vasodilator properties. Inamrinone inhibits type III phosphodiesterase, which is abundant in cardiac and vascular tissues, thereby preventing the degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and increasing intracellular concentrations of this secondary messenger. Elevated levels of cAMP increase the contractile force of the cardiac muscle and produce positive inotropic effects. Although the mechanism of action is not fully understood, inamrinone causes smooth muscle relaxation, resulting in peripheral vasodilation (reduced afterload) and a decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (reduced preload).
NCI

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hemoragická nemoc novorozenců

self-limited hemorrhagic disorder of the first days of life, caused by a deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X.
CSP

Neonatal nasogastric or intracranial hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
MSH

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apendektomie

Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix.
NCI

Surgery to remove the appendix (small finger-shaped pouch at the end of the first part of the large intestine).
NCI

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návratná horečka

An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
MSH

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MOS gene

This gene is involved in signal transduction and the control of meioses.
NCI

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smrt náhlá

The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
MSH

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anafylatoxiny

Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
MSH

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hepatitida

INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
MSH

inflammation of the liver and liver disease involving degenerative or necrotic alterations of hepatocytes.
CSP

Disease of the liver causing inflammation. Symptoms include an enlarged liver, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dark urine.
NCI

Your liver helps your body digest food, store energy and remove poisons. Hepatitis is a swelling of the liver that makes it stop working well. It can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to cancer.

Viruses cause most cases of hepatitis. The type of hepatitis is named for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol use can also lead to hepatitis. In other cases, your body mistakenly attacks its own tissues. You can help prevent some viral forms by getting a vaccine. Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime.

Some people who have hepatitis have no symptoms. Others may have

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements
  • Stomach pain
  • Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes


MEDLINEPLUS

Inflammation of the liver; usually from a viral infection, but sometimes from toxic agents.
NCI

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arachidonát-15-lipoxygenasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
MSH

Encoded by human ALOX15 Gene, a putative mutator gene regulated by tumor-suppressor TP53, 661-amino acid 74.7 kD cytoplasmic Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase (Lipoxygenase Family) acts in leukotriene biosynthesis and is implicated in anti-inflammation, membrane remodeling, and cancer development or metastasis. It converts arachidonic acid to 15s-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid. (OMIM, Swiss-Prot, and NCI)
NCI

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