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sirovodík

A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

toxic gas, H2S.
CSP

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sigma faktor

A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
MSH

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endarterektomie

Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
MSH

surgical excision of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery.
CSP

Excision of an atheromatous plaque.
NCI

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pankreas

A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
MSH

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
UWDA

mixed exocrine and endocrine gland situated transversely across the posterior abdominal wall in the epigastric and hypochondriac regions; endocrine portion is comprised of the islets of Langerhans, and the exocrine portion is a compound acinar gland that secretes digestive enzymes.
CSP

Having to do with the pancreas.
NCI

A glandular organ located in the abdomen. It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. The pancreas is surrounded by the stomach, intestines, and other organs.
NCI

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
FMA

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (NCI)
NCI

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (from Diabetes Dictionary: http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/dictionary)
NCI

Of or pertaining to the pancreas.
NCI

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Callithrix

A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
MSH

The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a small primate characterized by a hairless face with a white mark on the forehead and is covered in grey fur with white tufts of hair surrounding its ears. This primate has a life span of 10 years in the wild and 16 years in captivity. The marmoset has claws instead of nails and walks on all four legs. Fully mature 20-24 month old females typically give birth to twins after a 150 day gestational period. The marmoset is genetically similar to humans and is a useful model for studying human diseases such as Lassa fever, multiple sclerosis, and viral infections.
NCI

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nervy – degenerace

Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
MSH

loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells.
CSP

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kyselina hydroxyindoloctová

A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.
NCI

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simethikon

A poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is a polymer of 200-350 units of dimethylsiloxane, along with added silica gel. It is used as an antiflatulent, surfactant, and ointment base.
MSH

A mixture of polydimethylsiloxanes with antifoaming and anti-bloating effects. Simethicone reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles causing them to coalesce into larger bubbles that can be passed more easily by belching or flatulence.
NCI

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endoftalmitida

Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the internal structures of the eye.
NCI

An infectious process affecting the internal structures of the eye.
NCI

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pantethein

An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
MSH

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Candida albicans

etiologic agent of candidiasis.
CSP

A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
MSH

A species of diploid fungus in the phylum Ascomycota which is capable of mating but not of meiosis, and is a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans.
NCI

a kind of fungus that can cause yeast infection
CHV

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neurilema

The nerve husk. The outermost part of the MYELIN SHEATH covering a myelinated nerve fiber (NERVE FIBERS, MYELINATED) or a bundle of unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED).
MSH

Neural tissue which consists of Schwann cells.
FMA

Nerve sheath that is part of the myelinated segment of an axon. It is composed of Schwann cells.
NCI

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hyperbilirubinémie dědičná

Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.
MSH

An inherited disorder affecting the metabolism of bilirubin. It results in increased levels of bilirubin in the blood. Representative examples of this condition include Gilbert syndrome and Crigler-Najjar syndrome.
NCI

inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.
CSP

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kůže – absorpce

Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
MSH

to take in or assimilate substances into or across the skin.
CSP

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enteritida

Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
MSH

inflammation of the intestine, especially of the small intestine.
CSP

inflammation of the bowel
CHV

Inflammation of the small intestine.
NCI

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Paragonimus

A genus of lung flukes of the family Troglotrematidae infecting humans and animals. This genus consists of several species one of which is PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI, a common lung fluke in humans.
MSH

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Capsicum

A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates vanilloid receptors. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
MSH

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nervosvalová vřeténka

Skeletal muscle structures that function as the mechanoreceptors responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag1 fibers, nuclear bag2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by sensory neurons.
MSH

The Muscle Spindle is composed of intrafusal fibers that are located within and run parallel to the extrafusal fibers of skeletal muscle. When the extrafusal fibers are stretched, the intrafusal fibers of the spindle stretch as well. When stretching occurs, the sensory neuron from the muscle spindle signals the motor neurons located within the ventral horn of the spinal cord. This signal causes the motor neurons to fire, resulting in contraction of the muscle. This reflex arc provides negative feedback. The muscular contraction induced by the stretching works against or negates further muscle stretch. This mechanism helps to maintain proper muscle tension or tone. Although the muscle spindle helps to maintain proper muscle tension, unlike the Golgi tendon organ, it is not an indicator of muscle tension, but rather of muscle length.
NCI

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hyperparatyreoidismus sekundární

Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
MSH

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Slovinsko

Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
MSH

A country in Central Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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životní prostředí – znečištění

introduction into water, air, and soil, any chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use; also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products.
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parapsychologie

Branch of psychology that deals with paranormal behavior and events such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance, which are not explicable by present day “natural laws”.
MSH

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sirouhlík

A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
MSH

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neutronová aktivační analýza

Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

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hypoaldosteronismus

A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.
MSH

aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium.
CSP

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společenská kontrola neformální

Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
MSH

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Parkinsonova nemoc

A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
MSH

progressive, degenerative disorder of the nervous system characterized by tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and gait abnormalities; caused by a loss of neurons and a decrease of dopamine in the basal ganglia.
CSP

A progressive disorder of the nervous system marked by muscle tremors, muscle rigidity, decreased mobility, stooped posture, slow voluntary movements, and a mask-like facial expression.
NCI

Parkinson`s disease is a disorder that affects nerve cells, or neurons, in a part of the brain that controls muscle movement. In Parkinson`s, neurons that make a chemical called dopamine die or do not work properly. Dopamine normally sends signals that help coordinate your movements. No one knows what damages these cells. Symptoms of Parkinson`s disease may include

  • Trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face
  • Stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk
  • Slowness of movement
  • Poor balance and coordination

As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking or doing simple tasks. They may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems or trouble chewing, swallowing or speaking.

Parkinson`s usually begins around age 60, but it can start earlier. It is more common in men than in women. There is no cure for Parkinson`s disease. A variety of medicines sometimes help symptoms dramatically.


MEDLINEPLUS

A progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus. Signs and symptoms include tremor which is most pronounced during rest, muscle rigidity, slowing of the voluntary movements, a tendency to fall back, and a mask-like facial expression.
NCI

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karcinoid

A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
MSH

A slow-growing type of tumor usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the appendix), and sometimes in the lungs or other sites. Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
NCI

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers that usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or in the lungs. Because they grow slowly and don`t produce symptoms in the early stages, the average age of people diagnosed with digestive or lung carcinoids is about 60.

In later stages the tumors sometimes produce hormones that can cause carcinoid syndrome. The syndrome causes flushing of the face and upper chest, diarrhea, and trouble breathing.

Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven`t spread to other parts of the body, surgery can cure the cancer.


MEDLINEPLUS

A usually small, slowly growing tumor usually found in gastrointestinal tract
CHV

A slow growing neuroendocrine tumor, composed of uniform, round, or polygonal cells having monotonous, centrally located nuclei and small nucleoli, infrequent mitoses, and no necrosis. The tumor may show a variety of patterns, such as solid, trabecular, and acinar. Electron microscopy shows small secretory granules. Immunohistochemical studies reveal NSE, as well as chromogranin immunoreactivity. Malignant histology (cellular pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, necrosis, and mitoses) can occasionally be seen. Such cases may have an aggressive clinical course. Gastrointestinal tract and lung are common sites of involvement.
NCI

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niklosamid

An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)
MSH

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area hypothalamica lateralis

This area is bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of fornix. The medial edge of the internal capsule and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE. (Parent, Carpenter`s Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p710)
MSH

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